American Government at JC
Terms in this set (100)
When the delegates to the Constitutional Convention created the presidency, which concept or philosophy was reflected in their final structure?
checks and balances
One of the requirements for the presidency, as stated in Article II of the Constitution, says that the president
must be a U.S.-born citizen
Which of the following is NOT one of the five major constitutional powers of the U.S. president?
to control the power of the purse
What term refers to the president's rejection of a bill that both the House and Senate have approved?
The framers' limited conception and vague description of the president's role has led to
a more powerful presidency.
By the end of 2013, President Obama had vetoed ________ bills sent to him from Congress.
Which has historically been seen as the most controversial use of the president's powers?
the power to act as commander in chief of the military
Which term refers to the duties or authorities claimed by the president that are NOT clearly specified in the Constitution?
What presidential directives carry the force of law, though they are not specifically granted in the Constitution?
At times Congress willingly gives the executive branch more responsibility to administer programs it has created. This is called
delegation of powers.
Which individual often acts as a first among equals or, in some administrations, the unquestioned leader of the president's inner circle?
chief of staff
What is the name of the president's extended executive establishment, which employs about 2,000 and has an annual budget of $500 million?
the Executive Offce of the President
Which common advisory style for organizing the White House staff was demonstrated by President Eisenhower, mirroring a military command with clear lines of authority?
a hierarchical staff model
In his book, Presidential Power, Richard Neustadt stresses that a president's powers are embodied in which single characteristic?
Presidents' obsessive concern with public opinion can be defended as a way to promote
Which common situation in American government may seem politically schizophrenic and illogical, but doesn't seem to bother the American people?
Which president used his farewell address to lash out at interest groups for distorting the national interest?
Which concept refers to the voters' endorsement for a president to carry out the platform spelled out in the campaign?
The text demonstrates the differing intentions of presidents by noting that Lyndon Johnson repeatedly used the words ________ in his inaugural address, while Ronald Reagan used the word ________ fourteen times in his.
justice and injustice; freedom
Which president demonstrated a critical change in legislative leadership by asking and receiving more of Congress than ever before in history?
Which group acts as the communications link between the White House and Congress, informing the president of a pending bill's status and problem areas?
legislative liaison staff
For over forty years, from the end of World War II until the late 1980s, ________ around the globe preoccupied American presidents.
containing communist expansion
Of the three fundamental objectives of international relations that concern modern presidents, which was particularly reflected in President Obama's decision to ambush Osama bin Laden?
maintaining national security
Which of the following is a provision outlined in the War Powers Resolution passed by Congress in 1973?
If the president deploys troops, they may not stay for more than sixty days without congressional approval.
During the Cuban missile crisis of 1962, John Kennedy established a new role model for presidents regarding effective
What term describes the federal employees who are experts in their narrow areas and work within specified limits of responsibility?
Your text notes that since the start of the twentieth century, American government seems to have
Which of the following is cited in your text as a principal cause of the expansion of government over time?
the increasing complexity of society
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are examples of twentieth-century bureaucracies created to
regulate specific industries.
What are the biggest units of the executive branch, covering broad areas of government responsibility?
Which of the following are examples of cabinet departments?
Interior, Justice, and Education
What term is used to describe any organization within the executive branch that is NOT part of a cabinet department?
The postal service is an example of a
The goal of the Pendleton Act of 1883 was to
reduce the practice of patronage.
People are often surprised or confused about the fact that the country's major administrative agencies
actually make policy.
Which of the following is an example of administrative discretion?
Congress allowing the FCC to create broadcasting guidelines
Which agencies are granted the broadest discretion by Congress, and therefore have the most freedom to make policy decisions on their own?
those involved in domestic and global security
Which administrative process do government agencies use with the goal of issuing regulations?
Airline regulations, such as those issued by the Department of Transportation after Congress threatened to enact a "passenger bill of rights," represent a perfect example of
freedom versus order.
In his analysis of the way policy is made, Charles Lindblom found that the ''rational-comprehensive'' model for the decision-making process is
Incrementalism is a primary characteristic of modern policymaking, referring to the fact that in real life policies are made by
making changes bit by bit and step by step.
Part of a large organization's culture of bureaucracy is the development of informal, unwritten rules that guide individual behavior called
After the development of a policy, the next phase in the policymaking cycle is
When new regulations in the EPA's amended Clean Air Act were followed so that pollution could be reduced in Los Angeles, which common difficulty of implementation was demonstrated?
sharing responsibility with many agencies and layers of government
Which regulatory philosophy aims to achieve equilibrium, a situation in which the targeted problem is balanced by gains that improve lives or businesses?
Which common approach to reform focuses on measuring agency results and holding bureaucrats accountable for meeting expectations?
setting performance standards
Advocates of ________ envision eliminating layers of bureaucracy and reducing the rules that govern business markets.
The text describes Dr. Frances Kelsey's actions during the FDA approval process for thalidomide in 1960 to explain why
strict adherence to regulations can be crucial in protecting consumers.
One widespread adaptation of competitive bidding to administer government programs has come in the area of
The Government Performance and Results Act requires that bureaucratic agencies
identify goals and report on their progress in meeting them.
John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, refused to continue his duties because he felt the Court
did not have the ability to contribute to national affairs.
Early in its history, the Supreme Court faced an issue of major importance that would shape the republic; that is, what happens when a law enacted by Congress
clashes with the U.S. Constitution
The landmark ruling in Marbury v. Madison (1803) established the Supreme Court's power of
The Supreme Court has ________ about 240 times in its history.
If a state law appears to conflict with national laws or treaties, the federal courts
can invalidate it.
What frees judges from executive and legislative control, reducing the chance that they might deviate from the law?
their lifetime tenure
The courts decide ________ when disagreements arise from disputed claims to something of value.
Many civil cases end when the parties settle, or when the charges are simply abandoned and dropped. But if a case is not settled and not abandoned, it ends with
One of the two ways that judges make policy is to rule on matters that no existing legislation addresses thereby setting precedents, which leads to the creation of
Like state courts, the federal courts are organized in three tiers like a pyramid. The Supreme Court is on the top, the ________ are in the middle, and the ________ are on the bottom.
courts of appeals; district courts
Which Latin expression refers to the bias toward existing rulings, that is, the tendency for courts to rely on precedent?
The idea of judicial activism means that judges should
use their powers to promote their preferred social and political goals.
Regardless of the nature of the final ruling, or how the justices arrived at it, the Supreme Court's voting outcome is called the ________ , that is, its final decision on who wins and who loses.
Quite often, one or more Supreme Court justices entirely disagree with the majority decision. They express their opposing views in what is called a
What is the most critical function of the Supreme Court justices?
Supreme Court law clerks who decide to enter private practice
earn more than the justices who hired them.
Senatorial courtesy refers to the process that allows the Senate to
share the judicial nomination power with the president.
The ________ regularly evaluates potential appointees for federal courts using a three-value scale of ''well qualified,'' ''qualified,'' and ''not qualified.''
American Bar Association
What concept has proven to be at the center of today's decisions on judicial appointments?
Beginning with its 2006 term, the Supreme Court has had many close votes, and in each case,
Justice Kennedy cast the deciding vote and mostly sided with the conservative majority.
Which two justices are the most recent additions to the Supreme Court, appointed by President Obama?
Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan
Most criminal cases end in
a plea bargain.
Public opinion is not always reflected in Supreme Court decisions. For five decades most Americans have disagreed, and still disagree, with its consistent rulings on
Which legal procedure supports the argument that the American judicial system should fit a pluralist rather than majoritarian model?
Which state supreme court has been more aggressive than most others in following its own liberal constitutional path, going further than the U.S. Supreme Court in promoting equality over freedom and freedom over order?
the New Jersey Supreme Court
Once the Bill of Rights was written and ratified, it imposed limits on
the national government but not on the state governments.
Civil rights, sometimes called " ________ ," declare what the government must do or provide.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 established the right to nondiscrimination in ________ and the right to equality in ________ .
public accommodations; employment
To distinguish between similar legal concepts, we can say that persons possess ________ , but governments possess ________ .
Which clause of the Constitution specifically prevents the government from interfering with a person's religious practice?
At the time of the Constitutional Convention, many New Englanders thought the national government could and should ________ , though many more Americans felt state governments should decide on this.
In ________ , the Court's landmark ruling prohibited states from paying instructors hired by parochial schools to teach secular subjects, ultimately creating a three-part "test" for similar cases.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
The Supreme Court has struck down many religious practices in schools over the past decades, but it has constitutionally allowed
religious training in public schools after hours.
Within the free-exercise clause, the Supreme Court has distinguished between ________ and ________ .
religious beliefs; actions based on those beliefs
The free-expression clauses are the provisions of the First Amendment involving
press and speech.
The concept of ________ refers to instances when the government attempts to censor something before its publication.
Which concept, formulated by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes in 1919, acts as the first step in analyzing any form of communication as free speech?
clear and present danger
In the area of free speech, the United States is unique among all the world's democratic nations in that it
protects threatening and hateful speech.
Which type of communication inflicts injury or incites an immediate disturbance of the peace, and therefore is NOT protected by the First Amendment?
The First Amendment protects the publication of all statements about public officials, even false ones, EXCEPT those that reflect
What declares that "a well-regulated militia" and "the right of the people to keep and bear arms" will not be taken away?
The first time the Supreme Court ruled on any type of firearms issue, in 1939, it unanimously ruled that citizens were NOT protected by the Constitution regarding
What makes the Fourteenth Amendment so important?
It extends constitutional protections to the states.
The Court's ruling in Miranda v. Arizona based on the Fifth Amendment led to creation of the Miranda warning, which protects citizens from
The judicial rule that states that evidence obtained in an illegal search and seizure cannot be used in trial is called
the exclusionary rule.
What concept involves the use of evidence that was seized after a judge issued an erroneous warrant?
good faith exception
The meaning of the Ninth Amendment was clarified by the Supreme Court for the first time in 1965 when it was cited to protect privacy, a right that
is not described in the Constitution.
The significance of the outcome of Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989) is that
it was the first time that the Court upheld significant government restrictions on abortion.
In Lawrence and Garner v. Texas (2003), the Supreme Court reviewed a law that criminalized homosexual practices, and took the unusual step of
declaring a past decision was wrong and should be overruled.
For groups dissatisfied with rulings from the nation's courts, which pluralist action offers countermeasures to judicial intervention?
initiatives and referendums