Science Review

STUDY
PLAY
Qualitative
description
Quantitative
amount-using numbers
Inference
an explanation of an oberservation based on prior expirences or supported by observations made in the investigation
Experiment
a test to find out something
Dependent Variable
something that is changed as a result of the independent variable
Independent Variable
something that the expirementer chooses to change
Hypothesis
prediction about the relationship between two variables
Data
the information provided from a scientific experiment
Testable Question
should include the relationship between independent and dependent variable
Technology
usually developed because there is a need or problem that needs to be solved
Science
the process of learning about the natural world by asking questions and trying to find the answers to those questions
Scientific Oberservation
look at (using 5 senses)
What are the reasons why a repeated investigation could produce different results?
human error and instrument error
The steps of the design can be communicated using descriptions, _____, and drawings.
models
Scientific models can be _____ or mental.
physical
A hypothesis can be stated _____ or _____.
to support, not support
There is no way to be sure which _____ best explains the observation without further investigation.
answer
Inferences are sometimes needed to help form a _____ conclusion.
valid
A _____ is a tool used to reflect light.
reflector
A _____ _____ is a tool that blocks certain wavelengths of light and transmits others.
color filter
A _____ is a tool that breaks light into the colors of the spectrum.
prism
Conclusion
an explanation of the data that is based on facts
Trial
each set of repeated data
What are the steps to a controlled scientific investigation?
Question, Hypothesis, Procedure, Conduct Lab, Data Anaylsis, Compare Hypothesis, then Conclusion.
What are the steps in the technological desgin process?
Indentifying a problem or need then, research and gather information on what is already known about the problem or need.
A _____ is the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past, usually more than 10,000 years ago.
fossil
An _____ is a trait or behavior that helps an organism survive and reproduce.
adaptation
Natural Selection
process that explains this survival and shows how species can change over time
Mold Fossils
forms when sediments bury an organism and the sediments change into rock; the organism decays leaving a cavity in the shape of the organism
Cast Fossil
forms when a mold is filled with sand or mud that hardens into the shape of an organism
Petrified Fossil
forms when minerals soak into the buried remains, replacing the remains, and changing them into rock
Preserved Fossil
forms when entire organisms or parts of organisms are trapped in ice, tar, or amber and are prevented from decaying
Carbon Film
forms when entire organisms or parts of organisms, like leaves, stems, flowers, fish, are pressed between layers of soft mud or clay that hardens, squeezing almost all the decaying organism away, leaving the carbon imprint in the rock
Trace Fossil
forms when the mud or sand hardens to stone where a footprint, trail, or burrow of an organism was left behind
The _____ _____ gives important information about past life and environments on Earth.
fossil record
Impact of an Asteroid or Comet
At the end of the Mesozoic Era many animals suddenly disappeared, climate change affect the animals and many died, and the dinosaur was one major life form that died.
Climate
Earth' s environments have many different of these even today. It's an ever-changing condition on Earth. Earliest life forms were influenced by this that was produced by the forming atmosphere and oceans of Earth.
Volcanic Activity
During the Precambrian Time, volcanic activity was major deal and made conditions for life forms difficult. Simple life forms didn't survive. When ash and dust from a volcano covers the Sun, life forms that depend on the Sun are put in danger.
Relative Age
the rock layer on the bottom formed before the layer above it
Certain fossils, called _____ fossils, can be used to help find the relative age of rock layers.
index
Present day Earth is in the Cenozoic era, and the Quaternary period in the _____ epoch.
Holocene
The law of _____ states that each rock layer is older than the one above it.
superposition
Trilobite
hard shell animals whose body had 3 sections, lived in shallow seas, and are extinct.
Can natural factors cause extinctions?
Yes.
Has geological time ended?
No.
Earth had layers that have specific conditions and _____.
composition
Oceanic crust is mostly made of _____.
basalt
Continental crust is mostly made of _____.
granite
The core as the densest layer composed mostly of iron and _____.
nickel
If cooling takes place slowly beneath Earth's surface, the igneaous rock is called _____.
intrusive
If the cooling takes place rapidly on Earth's surface, the igneaous rock is called _____.
extrusive
Mantle
the thickest layer of Earth, and solid and liquid mix
Lithosphere
crust and the top rigid layer, and we "li"ve on the "li"thosphere
Outer Core
made up of metals, and it's less dense than the inner core
Inner Core
made of metals (iron and nickel)
Asthenosphere
hot, soft rock of mantle, flows, magma, and has convection currents that moves tectonic plates
Plate Tectonics
theory of the formation and movement of the plates that cover Earth's surface
Lithospheric Plate
a number of rigid , but moving, pieces of the Earth's surface
Continental Drift
the theory that all continents are fragments of Pangea now drifting apart
Seafloor Spreading
states that the youngest rocks of the ocean floor are at diverging boundaries, moving outward
Diverging Boundaries
forms when two (crustal) Lithospheric Plates move apart
Transform Boundaries
forms when two (crustal ) Lithospheric Plates slide past each other
Converging Boundaries
forms when two (crustal) Lithospheric Plates come together
Seismic Waves
the energy released by an earthquake that spreads outward in all directions as vibrations
Earthquake Focus
the point in the crust or mantle where energy is released
Earthquake Epicenter
the place where energy that reaches the surface is greatest
Seismic waves can be measured and recorded by a _____.
seismograph
The vibration record , called a _____, looks like jagged lines on paper.
seismogram
_____ identifies the epicenter of an earthquake. The location of an earthquake's epicenter is found by plotting circles on a map from the records of three seismograph stations and finding the point where the three circles intersect.
Triangulation
Normal Fault
caused by tension forces
Reverse Fault
caused by compression forces
Strike-slip Fault
caused by shearing forces
Fault
a break in the body of a rock which one block slides relative to another
P-wave
a seismic wave that compresses and expands rock, fastest wave
S-wave
a seismic waves that causes rock to move in a side-to-side direction
Surface Wave
the seismic waves travel more slowly, but are more destructive
Richter Scale
measures earthquake intensity on a scale of 1-10
Earthquake
the shaking of the ground
Fuels give off _____ when they are burned.
energy
What provides information on elevation, relief, and the slope of the ground surface, as well as location of roads, buildings, swamps, and other features, natural and man-made?
Topographical maps.
_____ features can identified on a topographic map using the contour lines and interval spacing as well as the symbols on the map.
Geologic
Does the rock cycle end?
Never.
What are the two types of properties to determine the usefulness of an ore or mineral?
Physical and chemical.
What are some physical properties of a mineral or ore?
Hardness, luster, color, texture, the way a mineral splits, or density.
What are some chemical properties of a mineral or ore?
The ability to burn, and the reactivity to acids.
Volcanic eruptions are _____ in that they add new rock to existing land and form new islands.
constructive
Volcanic eruptions can be _____ when an eruption is explosive and changes the landscape of and around the volcano.
destructive
Magma that reaches Earth's surface is know as _____.
lava
Magma from the mantle that rises to Earth's surface and flows out an opening called a _____.
vent
What happens at the subduction zone?
More dense oceanic plates slide under less dense continental plate or another oceanic plate and some crust is destroyed.
Forces that pull rocks apart are called _____ _____.
tension forces
Forces that push or squeeze rocks together are called _____ _____.
compression forces
Forces that cause rocks on either side of faults to push in opposite directions are called _____ _____.
shearing forces
Forces or _____ (for examples, tension, and compression) on rocks in the lithosphere can cause them to bend and stretch.
stresses
One time in geologic history the continents were joined together in one large landmass that was called _____.
Pangea
Forces, or stresses, that cause rocks to break or move are called _____-____ _____.
mountain-building forces
Bending and stretching can produce _____ _____.
mountain ranges
If pressure is applied slowly, _____ mountains form.
folded
Highflying aircraft and satellites high above Earth use sensors and _____ to gather imformation about Earth's landforms and reasources.
cameras
_____ create images from the data; scientists indentify specific featues by the combination of colors and shapes that the feature makes on the satellite image.
Computers
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