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112 terms

Psych Midterm 1

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The 4 main goals of psychology are___, ___, ____, and ____.
describe, explain, predict, and change behavoirs
The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one's behavior is part of what theory of personality?
psychoanalytic
____ are manipulated; ____ are measured.
Independent variables; dependent variables
Cause and effect conclusions can be drawn from ___ studies.
experimental
Zero Correlation
a relationship between two variables that are not related
A state of self-fulfillment in which we realize our highest potential, acording to Abraham Maslow, is called ____.
self actualization
The basic units of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that process, store, and transmit information are the ____.
neurons
Anna hears her teacher ask a question she knows the answer to, so she raises her hand so she can speak. Which division of the nervous system was responsible for her hand going up?
somatic nervous system
Beverly had a stroke that has left her with Broca's aphasia even though she can read and write. This suggests her ___ was damaged.
left frontal lobe
Although the left and right hemispheres of the brain are specialezed, they are normally in close communication through the ___.
corpus callosum
A visual acuity problem that occurs when the cornea and lens focus an image in front of the retina is called _____.
myopia (nearsightedness)
The 3-chambered, snail-shaped, fluid-filled structure that contains receptors for hearing is the ____.
cochlea
The tendency of the brain to ignore environmental factors that remain constant is called ____.
habituation
The tendency for the environment to be perceived as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input is called ___.
perceptual constancy
What was Titchener's approach to psychology called?
Structuralism
What does structuralism deal with?
structure of mental life
Was structuralism successful? Why or why not?
No; there was no scientific way to settle disputes
_____ established a model for studying mental processes scientifically.
Structuralism
Who was a leading force in the functionalist school?
William James
What does functionalism focus on?
How the mind functions to adapt human and nonhuman animals to their environment
Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Perspective
focuses on unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts
_____ founded the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective.
Sigmund Freud
The primary goal of psychodynamic psychologists is to ____.
interpret complex meanings hypothesized to underlie people's actions.
Behavioral Perspective
emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior
_____ is the founder of behaviorism.
John B. Watson
Watson adopted ______ concept of conditioning to explain how behavior results from obervable stimuli and observable responses.
Ivan Pavlov's
B. F. Skinner was _______.
a prominent figure in behavioralism and one of the most influential psychologists of the twentieth century.
Humanistic Perspective
emphasizes free will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth-seeking
The two central figures in the development of humanism are _____ and _____.
Carl Rogers; Abraham Maslow
Rogers and Abraham state that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and move toward _____.
self-actualization
Cognitive Perspective
focuses on thinking, perceiving, and information processing
Many cognitive psychologists use an _____ approach.
information-processing
information-processing
likening the mind to a computer that sequentially takes in information, processes it, and then produces a response
Neuroscience/ Biopsychology Perspective
emphasizes genetics and other biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system
Evolutionary Perspective
focuses on natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes
Sociocultural prespective
emphasizes social interaction and cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes
Biopsychosocial model
unifying theme of modern psychology that incorporates biological, psychological, and social processes
Basic Research
research conducted to advance scientific knowledge
Basic research is typically conducted in universities or research laboratories by researchers interested in ______.
advancing general scientific understanding (knowledge for the sake of knowledge)
Applied Research
research designed to solve practical problems
Applied research meets the fourth goal of psychology, to ____ existing real-world problems.
change
What is the first step of the scientific method?
Literature review
Literature review
reading what has been published in major professional, scientific journals on the subject of interest
What is the second step of the scientific method?
Testable hypothesis, operationally defined
Hypothesis
specific prediction about how one favtor or variable is related to another
operationally defined
stated precisely and in measurable terms
What is the third step of the scientific method?
Research design
Research design
type of method used to test hypothesis
What is the fourth step of the scientific method?
Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis
allows organization, summarization, and interpretation of numerical data
What is the fifth step of the scientific method?
Peer-reviewed scientific fournal
Peer-reviewed scientific journal
write up of the study and its results
What is the sixth step of the scientific method?
Thoery
Thoery
interrelated set of conepts that explain a body of data
Informed consent
participant's agreement to take part in a study after being told what to expect
voluntary participation
participants should be told they are free to decline to participate or to withdraw from the research at any time
restricted use of deception
not telling participants the goal of the study at the beginning of an experiment
debriefing
explaining the reasonsfor conducting the research and clearing up and misconceptions or concerns on the part of the participant
confidentiality
all information must be kept private
Alternative activites
option given to all students of equal value
Experimental Research
manipulation and control of variables
Experimental research meets psychology's goal of _____
explanation
Descriptive Research
observe collect and record data
Descriptive research meets psychology's goal of ____.
description
Correlational Research
identify relationships and assess how well one variable predicts another
Correlational research meets psycology's goal of ____.
prediction
A ____ group receives the treatment, while a ___ recieves a placebo
experimental group; control group
Placebo
fake treatment
Experimenter bias
occurs when researcher influences research results in the expected direction
Ethnocentrism
believing that one's own ethnic group is "correct" and judging others according to this standard
Sample bias
occurs when research participants are not representative of the larger population
Participant Bias
Occurs when experimental conditions influence the participant's behavoir or mental processes
Dendrites
branching neuron structures that receive neural impulses from other neurons and convey impulses toward the cell body
Cell Body
contains the cell nucleus and other structures that help neurons carry out its functions
The cell body is also know as the ______.
soma
Axon
long, tublike structure that conveys impulses away from the neuron's cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
Myelin Sheath
layer of fatty insulation wrapped around the axon of some neurons, which increases the rate at which nerve impulses travel along the axon
Glial Cells
provide structural, nutritional, and other support of neurons, as well as communication within the nervous system
Glial cells are also known as ____ or ___.
glia; neuroglia
Terminal buttons
release neurotransmitters
Serotonin
affects mood, sleep, appetite, sensory perception, arousal, temperature regulation, pain suppression, and impulsivity
Low levels of ____ are associated with depression
serotonin
Acetylcholine
affects muscle action, learning, memory, REM sleep, and emotion
Decreased levels of ACh plays a suspected role in _____.
Alzheimer's disease
Dopamine
affects movement, attention, memory, learning,and emotion
Excess dopamine is associated with ____.
schizophrenia
Too little amounts of ____ is associated with _____.
Parkinson's disease
Norepinephrine
affects learning, memory, dreaming, emotion, waking from sleep, eating, alertness, wakefullness, and reactions to stress
_____ of NE are associated with depression.
Low levels
High levels of NE are associated with ____.
agitated, manic states
Epinephrine is also known as ____.
adrenaline
Epinphrine
affects emotional arousal, memory storage and metabolism of glucose necessary for energy release
GABA stands for ____.
gamma aminobutyric acid
GABA
affects neural inhibition in the central nervous system
Endorphins
affect mood, pain, memory, learning, blood pressure, appetite, and sexual activity
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
all nerves and neurons connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Thalamus
forebrain structure at the top of the brainstem that relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex
Hypothalamus
small brain structure beneath the thalamus that helps govern drives (hunger, thirst, sex, and agression) and hormones
Limbic System
Interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, and memory
Frontal Lobe
receives and coordinates messages from other lobes
The frontal lobe contains the _____ and _____.
motor cortex; Broca's area
Parietal Lobe
receieves information about pressure, pain, touch, and temperature
The ____ contains the somatosensory cortex.
parietal lobe
Occipital Lobe
responsible for vision and cisual perception
The occipital lobe contains the ____.
visual cortex
Temporal Lobe
responsible for hearing, language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control
The temporal lobe contains ______.
Wernicke's area
Wernicke's area controls ____.
language comprehension
Lateralization
the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, and vice versa
Behavioral Genetics
study of the relative effects of heredity and the environment on behavoir and mental processes
Evolutionary Psychology
studies how evolutionary processes, like natural selection and genetic mutations, affect behavoir and mental processes