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The 4 main goals of psychology are___, ___, ____, and ____.

describe, explain, predict, and change behavoirs

The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one's behavior is part of what theory of personality?


____ are manipulated; ____ are measured.

Independent variables; dependent variables

Cause and effect conclusions can be drawn from ___ studies.


Zero Correlation

a relationship between two variables that are not related

A state of self-fulfillment in which we realize our highest potential, acording to Abraham Maslow, is called ____.

self actualization

The basic units of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that process, store, and transmit information are the ____.


Anna hears her teacher ask a question she knows the answer to, so she raises her hand so she can speak. Which division of the nervous system was responsible for her hand going up?

somatic nervous system

Beverly had a stroke that has left her with Broca's aphasia even though she can read and write. This suggests her ___ was damaged.

left frontal lobe

Although the left and right hemispheres of the brain are specialezed, they are normally in close communication through the ___.

corpus callosum

A visual acuity problem that occurs when the cornea and lens focus an image in front of the retina is called _____.

myopia (nearsightedness)

The 3-chambered, snail-shaped, fluid-filled structure that contains receptors for hearing is the ____.


The tendency of the brain to ignore environmental factors that remain constant is called ____.


The tendency for the environment to be perceived as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input is called ___.

perceptual constancy

What was Titchener's approach to psychology called?


What does structuralism deal with?

structure of mental life

Was structuralism successful? Why or why not?

No; there was no scientific way to settle disputes

_____ established a model for studying mental processes scientifically.


Who was a leading force in the functionalist school?

William James

What does functionalism focus on?

How the mind functions to adapt human and nonhuman animals to their environment

Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Perspective

focuses on unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts

_____ founded the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective.

Sigmund Freud

The primary goal of psychodynamic psychologists is to ____.

interpret complex meanings hypothesized to underlie people's actions.

Behavioral Perspective

emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior

_____ is the founder of behaviorism.

John B. Watson

Watson adopted ______ concept of conditioning to explain how behavior results from obervable stimuli and observable responses.

Ivan Pavlov's

B. F. Skinner was _______.

a prominent figure in behavioralism and one of the most influential psychologists of the twentieth century.

Humanistic Perspective

emphasizes free will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth-seeking

The two central figures in the development of humanism are _____ and _____.

Carl Rogers; Abraham Maslow

Rogers and Abraham state that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and move toward _____.


Cognitive Perspective

focuses on thinking, perceiving, and information processing

Many cognitive psychologists use an _____ approach.



likening the mind to a computer that sequentially takes in information, processes it, and then produces a response

Neuroscience/ Biopsychology Perspective

emphasizes genetics and other biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system

Evolutionary Perspective

focuses on natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes

Sociocultural prespective

emphasizes social interaction and cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes

Biopsychosocial model

unifying theme of modern psychology that incorporates biological, psychological, and social processes

Basic Research

research conducted to advance scientific knowledge

Basic research is typically conducted in universities or research laboratories by researchers interested in ______.

advancing general scientific understanding (knowledge for the sake of knowledge)

Applied Research

research designed to solve practical problems

Applied research meets the fourth goal of psychology, to ____ existing real-world problems.


What is the first step of the scientific method?

Literature review

Literature review

reading what has been published in major professional, scientific journals on the subject of interest

What is the second step of the scientific method?

Testable hypothesis, operationally defined


specific prediction about how one favtor or variable is related to another

operationally defined

stated precisely and in measurable terms

What is the third step of the scientific method?

Research design

Research design

type of method used to test hypothesis

What is the fourth step of the scientific method?

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis

allows organization, summarization, and interpretation of numerical data

What is the fifth step of the scientific method?

Peer-reviewed scientific fournal

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

write up of the study and its results

What is the sixth step of the scientific method?



interrelated set of conepts that explain a body of data

Informed consent

participant's agreement to take part in a study after being told what to expect

voluntary participation

participants should be told they are free to decline to participate or to withdraw from the research at any time

restricted use of deception

not telling participants the goal of the study at the beginning of an experiment


explaining the reasonsfor conducting the research and clearing up and misconceptions or concerns on the part of the participant


all information must be kept private

Alternative activites

option given to all students of equal value

Experimental Research

manipulation and control of variables

Experimental research meets psychology's goal of _____


Descriptive Research

observe collect and record data

Descriptive research meets psychology's goal of ____.


Correlational Research

identify relationships and assess how well one variable predicts another

Correlational research meets psycology's goal of ____.


A ____ group receives the treatment, while a ___ recieves a placebo

experimental group; control group


fake treatment

Experimenter bias

occurs when researcher influences research results in the expected direction


believing that one's own ethnic group is "correct" and judging others according to this standard

Sample bias

occurs when research participants are not representative of the larger population

Participant Bias

Occurs when experimental conditions influence the participant's behavoir or mental processes


branching neuron structures that receive neural impulses from other neurons and convey impulses toward the cell body

Cell Body

contains the cell nucleus and other structures that help neurons carry out its functions

The cell body is also know as the ______.



long, tublike structure that conveys impulses away from the neuron's cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands

Myelin Sheath

layer of fatty insulation wrapped around the axon of some neurons, which increases the rate at which nerve impulses travel along the axon

Glial Cells

provide structural, nutritional, and other support of neurons, as well as communication within the nervous system

Glial cells are also known as ____ or ___.

glia; neuroglia

Terminal buttons

release neurotransmitters


affects mood, sleep, appetite, sensory perception, arousal, temperature regulation, pain suppression, and impulsivity

Low levels of ____ are associated with depression



affects muscle action, learning, memory, REM sleep, and emotion

Decreased levels of ACh plays a suspected role in _____.

Alzheimer's disease


affects movement, attention, memory, learning,and emotion

Excess dopamine is associated with ____.


Too little amounts of ____ is associated with _____.

Parkinson's disease


affects learning, memory, dreaming, emotion, waking from sleep, eating, alertness, wakefullness, and reactions to stress

_____ of NE are associated with depression.

Low levels

High levels of NE are associated with ____.

agitated, manic states

Epinephrine is also known as ____.



affects emotional arousal, memory storage and metabolism of glucose necessary for energy release

GABA stands for ____.

gamma aminobutyric acid


affects neural inhibition in the central nervous system


affect mood, pain, memory, learning, blood pressure, appetite, and sexual activity

Central Nervous System

brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System

all nerves and neurons connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body


forebrain structure at the top of the brainstem that relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex


small brain structure beneath the thalamus that helps govern drives (hunger, thirst, sex, and agression) and hormones

Limbic System

Interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, and memory

Frontal Lobe

receives and coordinates messages from other lobes

The frontal lobe contains the _____ and _____.

motor cortex; Broca's area

Parietal Lobe

receieves information about pressure, pain, touch, and temperature

The ____ contains the somatosensory cortex.

parietal lobe

Occipital Lobe

responsible for vision and cisual perception

The occipital lobe contains the ____.

visual cortex

Temporal Lobe

responsible for hearing, language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control

The temporal lobe contains ______.

Wernicke's area

Wernicke's area controls ____.

language comprehension


the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, and vice versa

Behavioral Genetics

study of the relative effects of heredity and the environment on behavoir and mental processes

Evolutionary Psychology

studies how evolutionary processes, like natural selection and genetic mutations, affect behavoir and mental processes

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