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40 terms

Inside The Earth: Ch.1

It's my test........Duhh
STUDY
PLAY
geologist
a scientist who studies the forces of that make and shape planet Earth
rock
The material that forms earth's hard surface
geology
a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks
constructive forces
forces that shape Earth's surface by building up mountains and landmasses
Destructive forces
A force that slowly wears away mountains and other features on the surface of the earth
continent
A great landmass surrounded by oceans
seismic wave
A vibration that travels through earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
pressure
the force applied to a unit area of surface
crust
The layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
basalt
A dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust
granite
a light-colored rock that is found in continental crust
mantle
the layer of hot, solid material between earth's crust and core
lithosphere
the solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
asthenosphere
the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
outer core
A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner of Earth
inner core
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel in the center of Earth
Constructive forces examples and destructive forces
A force that builds up mountains and landmasses on Earth's surface ex: The formation of the island of Surtsey is an example of a constructive force whereas the waves that wear away at the shoreline is an example of destructive forces.
pangaea
the name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents
continental drift
the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface
fossil
A trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock.
Alfred Wegner
German Meteorologist who proposed the theory of coninental drift (the idea that the continents were moving) and had been once joined together in a single landmass
mid-ocean ridge
An underwater moutain chain where new ocean floor is formed; a divergent plate boundry
sonar
a device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves.
sea-floor spreading
the process by which new molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
deep-ocean trench
a deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle
subduction
The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.
Harry Hess
credited with the theory of Plate Tectonics
Plate
a rigid layer of the Earth's crust that is believed to drift slowly
scientific theory
a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
fault
A crack in the earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other
transfrom boundary
the boundary between two plates sliding past each other in opposite directions
divergent boundary
a plate boutndary where two plates move away from each other
rift valley
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
convergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
J.tuzo Wilson
Canadian scientist that observed that there are cracks in the continental crust similar to those on the ocean floor
density
the amount of mass in a given space; mass per unit volume
what are the layers of the EARTH?
Crust, mantle, inner and outter core
what is subduction?
the process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and bake into the mantle
can you explain Wegeners theory
Alfred Wgener tried to determine how drit took place. He thaught when drifting continents collide, there edges crumble and fold. Geologist didn't belive him because his descriptions weren't specific enough.