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It's my test........Duhh


a scientist who studies the forces of that make and shape planet Earth


The material that forms earth's hard surface


a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks

constructive forces

forces that shape Earth's surface by building up mountains and landmasses

Destructive forces

A force that slowly wears away mountains and other features on the surface of the earth


A great landmass surrounded by oceans

seismic wave

A vibration that travels through earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake


the force applied to a unit area of surface


The layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface


A dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust


a light-colored rock that is found in continental crust


the layer of hot, solid material between earth's crust and core


the solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle


the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats

outer core

A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner of Earth

inner core

A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel in the center of Earth

Constructive forces examples and destructive forces

A force that builds up mountains and landmasses on Earth's surface ex: The formation of the island of Surtsey is an example of a constructive force whereas the waves that wear away at the shoreline is an example of destructive forces.


the name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents

continental drift

the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface


A trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock.

Alfred Wegner

German Meteorologist who proposed the theory of coninental drift (the idea that the continents were moving) and had been once joined together in a single landmass

mid-ocean ridge

An underwater moutain chain where new ocean floor is formed; a divergent plate boundry


a device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves.

sea-floor spreading

the process by which new molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor

deep-ocean trench

a deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle


The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.

Harry Hess

credited with the theory of Plate Tectonics


a rigid layer of the Earth's crust that is believed to drift slowly

scientific theory

a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations

plate tectonics

the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle


A crack in the earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other

transfrom boundary

the boundary between two plates sliding past each other in opposite directions

divergent boundary

a plate boutndary where two plates move away from each other

rift valley

a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart

convergent boundary

a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other

J.tuzo Wilson

Canadian scientist that observed that there are cracks in the continental crust similar to those on the ocean floor


the amount of mass in a given space; mass per unit volume

what are the layers of the EARTH?

Crust, mantle, inner and outter core

what is subduction?

the process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and bake into the mantle

can you explain Wegeners theory

Alfred Wgener tried to determine how drit took place. He thaught when drifting continents collide, there edges crumble and fold. Geologist didn't belive him because his descriptions weren't specific enough.

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