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Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach ch 9
Terms in this set (57)
What two reasons killed off the Passenger Pigeon?
Uncontrolled commercial hunting and habitat loss.
When a species is no longer found in an area it once inhabited but is still found elsewhere in the world.
When so few members of a species are left that it can no longer play its ecological roles in the biological communities where it is found.
When a species is no longer found anywhere on the earth.
Has so few individual survivors that the species could soon become extinct over all or most of its natural range.
Still abundant in its natural range, but because of declining numbers it is likely to become endangered in the near future.
Make species especially vulnerable to extinction.
Three reasons why cataloging extinction is hard
Extinction takes a long time. We've only identified 1.4 million of the 4-100 million species. We know little of the species we know of.
Methods to estimate past and projected future extinction rates
Comparing rates from before humans to during humans. Utilizing the species-area relationship, which is based on the theory of island biogeography. Models.
What are models based on?
Trends in pop size, changes in habitat availability, interactions with other species, and genetic factors.
What is the rate of extinction before humans?
What is the rate of extinction because of humans?
0.01% - 1%
Why do biologists consider extinction rates of 0.01 - 1% to be conservative?
Both the rate of species loss and biodiversity loss are likely to increase in the near future. Current and projected extinction rates are much higher than the global average in parts of the world. We are eliminating many biologically diverse environments.
When humans limit the long-term recovery of biodiversity by reducing the rate of speciation for some types of species.
Their usefulness to us in the form of economic and ecological services.
Genetic Information in species
Allows them to adapt to changing environmental conditions and to form new species.
Love of life.
Upsides of ecotourism
Can inject money into local economies and allows visitors to learn about the natural world and appreciate its value.
Downsides of ecotourism
Large amounts of people cannot visit an ecosystem without disturbing it.
AKA Existence value. Based on its inherent right to exist.
What is the greatest eliminator of species?
Deforestation of tropical forests.
Species found no where else on earth except in its local habitat.
Any habitat surrounded by a different one.
What causes habitat fragmentation?
Roads, logging, agriculture, and urban development.
Occurs when a large continuous area of habitat is reduced in area and divided into smaller, more scattered, and isolated patches.
Approximately what percent of the world's birds are declining in numbers?
After habitat loss, what is the second greatest danger to the world's threatened birds?
Intention or accidental introduction of nonnative species such as cats, rats, snakes, and mongooses.
What is the greatest NEW threat to birds?
Why are birds excellent environmental indicators?
Because they live in every climate and biome, respond quickly to environmental changes in their habitats, and are relatively easy to track and count.
When species reduce or wipe out populations of many native species and trigger ecological disruptions.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services.
What does feral mean?
Species that are not on an approved list are denied entry into the country.
Which two viruses did bushmeat help to spread?
HIV/AIDS and Ebola Virus.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.
Convention on Biological Diversity.
Helped reduce international trade in many threatened animals.
Ratified by 188 countries, legally commits participating governments to reversing the global decline of biological diversity.
Endangered Species Act
Designed to identify and legally protect endangered species in the US and abroad.
National Marine Fisheries Services.
Responsible for identifying and listing endangered and threatened ocean species.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services.
Identifies and lists all other endangered and threatened species.
Habitat Conservation Plans.
Designed to strike a compromise between the interests of private landowners and those of endangered and threatened species.
Safe Harbor Agreement
Landowners voluntarily agree to take specified steps to restore, improve, or maintain habitat for threatened or endangered species located on their land.
Voluntary Candidate Conservation Agreements
Landowners agree to take specific steps to help conserve a species whose population is declining but is not yet listed as endangered or threatened.
Find out what species and ecosystems the country has. Locate and protect the most endangered ecosystems and species. Make development biodiversity-friendly.
AKA Seed banks. Preserve genetic information and endangered plant species by storing their seeds in refrigerated, low-humidity environment.
Botanical Gardens and ARboreta
Contain living plants, representing almost one-third of the world's known plant species.
Involves collecting wild eggs laid by critically endangered bird species.
Some or all of the wild individuals of a critically endangered species are captured for breeding in captivity.
Surgical implantation of eggs of one species into a surrogate mother of another species.
What book did Michael L. Rosenzweig write?
Win Win Ecology: How Earth's Species Can Survive in the Midst of Human Enterprise.
Who wrote Win-Win Ecology: How Earth's Species Can Survive in the Midst of Human Enterprise?
Michael L. Rosenzweig.
Focuses on establishing and maintaining new habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people live.
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