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38 terms

Genetics II

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Enzyme
Reduces activation energy
Six Major Classes of Enzymes
1. Oxidoreductase
2. Transferases
3. Hydrolases
4. Lyases
5. Isomerases
6. Ligases
Hydrolases
Transfer H20 via hydrolysis of a substrate
Lyases
Add or remove H20, ammonia, carbon dioxide or remove to or from a double bond
Isomerase
Causes molecule to change its configuration
Ligases
Joint two molecules together
Characteristic of an enzyme
1. Works faster with increase energy
2. Can be used over and over
3. Specific for a substrate
4. Always end with "ase"
Acid phosphatase
Indication Prostate Cancer
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
Hepatitis A, B, C or drinking --> liver damage
Alkaline phosphatase
Liver disease and bone cancer
Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK)
Muscle disorder, MI
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
Heart, blood and kidney
Glycolysis
Breaking down glucose into the pyruvate (aerobic) or lactate (anaerobic)
Gluconeogenesis
Formation of glucose from non carbohydrate sources such as lactate, pyruvate, etc
Glycogenesis
Synthesis glycogen from glucose
Glycogenolysis
Breaking down of glycogen to form glucose
Monosaccharides
Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose
Disaccharides
Lactose: glucose + Galactose
Sucrose: glucose + fructose
Polysaccharides
Glycogen and Starch
NADH ratio to ATP
2 NADH = 4 ATP outside of mitochondria
2 NADH = 6 ATP inside mitochondria
Glycolysis inhibitors
Fluoride
NADH inhibitors
1. Ethanol
2. Methonal
3. Ethylene Glycol
8 Major Reactions in Kreb's Cycle
Acetyl Co-A + Oxaloacetate --> 6-C (Citrate) --> 5-C (alpha-ketoglutartate) + CO2 + NADH --> 4-C (Succinyl) + CO2 + NADH --> 4-C (Fumarate) + GTP + FADH2 --> 4-C (Oxaloacetate) + NADH
Which reaction does mercury inhibit?
Mercury attach to Pyruvate to prevent Pyruvate --> Acetyl CoA + CO2
How many ATP produce in Glycolysis?
2 ATP
How many ATP produce in Kreb Cycle?
2 ATP
How many ATP produce in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
36 or 38 ATP
Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation
1. Barbituates - stops electron transfer at CoQ
2. Cyanide, CO, Sulfides - stop energy exchange
Where does the Gluconeogenesis occurs?
Liver and somewhat kidney
Where does Glycogen store?
Mainly liver and some in muscle
Which hormone stimulate glycogen breakdown
Epinephrine and Glucagon
Function of Epinephrine in Glycogen Metabolism
1. Stimulate glycogen breakdown
2. Affects mainly in muscle
Function of Glucagon in Glycogen Metabolism
1. Produced in the alpha cell of pancreas
2. Stimulate glycogen breakdown
3. Stimulates gluconeogenesis: making new sugar from pyruvate/AA
4. Affects primarily in liver
Which hormone stimulate glycogen synthesis?
Insulin
Where does insulin produced at?
Pancreas
Sx of defects in Glycogen Storage
1. Hepatomegaly
2. Hypoglycemia
3. Cardiac failure
4. Respiratory failure
5. Cirrhosis
6. Exercise intolerance
What is Cori Cycle?
In muscle: Glucose --> Lactate
In Liver: Lactate --> pyruvate --> Glucose
Gluconeogenesis
What is Pytalin?
An enzyme in mouth, part of Amylase use to catalyze glycogen and starch