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Reduces activation energy

Six Major Classes of Enzymes

1. Oxidoreductase
2. Transferases
3. Hydrolases
4. Lyases
5. Isomerases
6. Ligases


Transfer H20 via hydrolysis of a substrate


Add or remove H20, ammonia, carbon dioxide or remove to or from a double bond


Causes molecule to change its configuration


Joint two molecules together

Characteristic of an enzyme

1. Works faster with increase energy
2. Can be used over and over
3. Specific for a substrate
4. Always end with "ase"

Acid phosphatase

Indication Prostate Cancer

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

Hepatitis A, B, C or drinking --> liver damage

Alkaline phosphatase

Liver disease and bone cancer

Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK)

Muscle disorder, MI

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)

Heart, blood and kidney


Breaking down glucose into the pyruvate (aerobic) or lactate (anaerobic)


Formation of glucose from non carbohydrate sources such as lactate, pyruvate, etc


Synthesis glycogen from glucose


Breaking down of glycogen to form glucose


Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose


Lactose: glucose + Galactose
Sucrose: glucose + fructose


Glycogen and Starch

NADH ratio to ATP

2 NADH = 4 ATP outside of mitochondria
2 NADH = 6 ATP inside mitochondria

Glycolysis inhibitors


NADH inhibitors

1. Ethanol
2. Methonal
3. Ethylene Glycol

8 Major Reactions in Kreb's Cycle

Acetyl Co-A + Oxaloacetate --> 6-C (Citrate) --> 5-C (alpha-ketoglutartate) + CO2 + NADH --> 4-C (Succinyl) + CO2 + NADH --> 4-C (Fumarate) + GTP + FADH2 --> 4-C (Oxaloacetate) + NADH

Which reaction does mercury inhibit?

Mercury attach to Pyruvate to prevent Pyruvate --> Acetyl CoA + CO2

How many ATP produce in Glycolysis?


How many ATP produce in Kreb Cycle?


How many ATP produce in Oxidative Phosphorylation?

36 or 38 ATP

Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation

1. Barbituates - stops electron transfer at CoQ
2. Cyanide, CO, Sulfides - stop energy exchange

Where does the Gluconeogenesis occurs?

Liver and somewhat kidney

Where does Glycogen store?

Mainly liver and some in muscle

Which hormone stimulate glycogen breakdown

Epinephrine and Glucagon

Function of Epinephrine in Glycogen Metabolism

1. Stimulate glycogen breakdown
2. Affects mainly in muscle

Function of Glucagon in Glycogen Metabolism

1. Produced in the alpha cell of pancreas
2. Stimulate glycogen breakdown
3. Stimulates gluconeogenesis: making new sugar from pyruvate/AA
4. Affects primarily in liver

Which hormone stimulate glycogen synthesis?


Where does insulin produced at?


Sx of defects in Glycogen Storage

1. Hepatomegaly
2. Hypoglycemia
3. Cardiac failure
4. Respiratory failure
5. Cirrhosis
6. Exercise intolerance

What is Cori Cycle?

In muscle: Glucose --> Lactate
In Liver: Lactate --> pyruvate --> Glucose

What is Pytalin?

An enzyme in mouth, part of Amylase use to catalyze glycogen and starch

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