Togaf 9.1 Foundation Syllabus
Terms in this set (143)
Describe what an Enterprise is
Collection of organizations with common set of goals.
Explain the purpose of an Enterprise Architecture
To optimize often fragmented enterprise into the integrated environment, responsive to change and supportive in the delivery of business strategy.
List the business benefits of having an Enterprise Architecture
1) More efficient business operation: a) Lower business operation costs. b) More agile organization. c) Business capabilities shared across the organization. d) Lower change management costs. e) More flexible workforce. f) Improved business productivity.
2) More effective IT operation (lower costs, increased, portability and interoperability of systems, ...).
3) Better ROI and reduced risk (reduced complexity of IT, flexibility in make-or-buy decisions).
4) Improved procurement (simpler and faster procurement process, ability to procure heterogeneous, multi-vendor open systems).
Define what an Architecture Framework is
A tool that can be used to define a broad range of different architectures.
Explain why TOGAF is suitable as framework for Enterprise Architecture
Defined by 300+ architectures forum members from leading IT companies.
Briefly explain what TOGAF is
Enterprise Architecture Framework developed by The Open Group. It can be used to develop a broad range of different EAs.
Explain what architecture is, in context of TOGAF.
1. A formal description of a system or a detailed plan of the system at a component level to guide its implementation.
2. The structure of components, their inter-relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time.
List different types of architecture that TOGAF deals with
1. Business Architecture
2. Data Architecture
3. Application Architecture
4. Technology Architecture
Describe the structure of TOGAF
3) ADM Guidelines & Techniques.
4) Architecture Content Framework.
5) Enterprise Continuum and Tools.
6) TOGAF Reference Models.
7) Architecture Capability Framework.
List ADM phases
A: Architecture Vision.
B: Business Architecture.
C: Information Systems Architecture.
D: Technology Architecture.
E: Opportunities and Solutions.
F: Migration Planning.
G: Implementation Governance.
H: Architecture Change Management.
How to establish and maintain an Enterprise Architecture Capability
Establishing the architecture practice within an organization would require the design of Business, Data, Application, and Technology.
The steps in establishing an architecture practice against the context of the ADM phases are also needed to follow.
Establish the Architecture Capability as an operation entity
EA practice should be treated as a business, and thus it should establish management of Financial, Performance, Service, Risk, Resources, Communication, Quality, etc...
How to use TOGAF with other frameworks
Deliverables may be replaced, extended or adjusted to other frameworks.
Explain TOGAF Documentation Categorization Model
1. Core (basic structure of TOGAF).
2. Mandated (ADM).
3. Recommended (Gap Analysis, ATAM).
4. Supporting (Release Notes, Evaluation Criteria for Tools).
Explain Architecture Repository
Six classes of architectural information are expected to be held within an Architecture Repository:
1. Architecture Metamodel.
2. Architecture Capability.
3. Architecture Landscape.
4. Standards Information Base (SIB).
5. Reference Library.
6. Governance Log.
Explain Enterprise Continuum
Virtual view of Architecture Repository that classifies architecture and solution artifacts from Foundation to Organization-specific.
Explain definition of Activity
Task or collection of tasks that supports function of the organization.
Explain definition of Application
An IT system that supports business functions and services.
Explain definition of Application Architecture
A description of a major logical grouping of capabilities that manage the data objects necessary to process the data and support the business.
Explain definition of Architecture Domain
TOGAF defines four Architecture Domains:
Explain definition of Architecture Framework.
A foundational structure that can be used for developing a broad range of various architectures.
Explain definition of Architecture Principles.
A qualitative statement that should be met by the architecture. Must include at least a supporting rationale and measure of importance.
Explain definition of ADM
The core of TOGAF. A step-by-step approach to develop and use an EA.
Explain definition of Baseline Architecture
The existing defined architecture before entering cycle of architecture review and redesign.
Explain definition of Foundation Architecture
An architecture of generic services and functions which provides a foundation on which more specific architectures and components can be build. Togaf Foundation Architecture includes a Technical Reference Model (TRM).
Explain definition of Target Architecture
Description of future state of the adrchitecture being developed for an organization. There may be multiple future states as a roadmap to show evolution of the architecture.
Explain definition of Building Block
A potentially re-usable component of business, IT or architectural capability.
A good building block:
1) May be assembled from other blocks.
2) May subassembly of other blocks.
3) Is reusable and replaceable.
4) Has specification loosely coupled with implementation.
Explain definition of ABB
The element of architecture model that describes a single aspect of the overall model.
Explain definition of Solution Building Block (SBB)
A candidate solution which conforms to the specification of an Architecture Building Block (ABB).
Explain definition of Architecture Vision (Phase A)
1. High-level, aspirational view of Target Architecture.
2. A phase in ADM which delivers understanding and definition of Architecture Vision.
3. A specific deliverable describing Architecture Vision.
Mukul: It includes information about defining the scope, identifying the stakeholders, creating the Architecture Vision, and obtaining approvals.
Explain definition of Business Architecture (Phase B)
A description of the structure and interaction between the business strategy, organization, functions, business processes, and information needs.
Explain definition of Business Governance
Ensuring that the business processes and policies (and their operation) deliver the business outcomes and adhere to relevant business regulation.
Explain definition of Capability
An ability that an organization, person, or system possesses. Capabilities are typically expressed in general and high-level terms and typically require a combination of organization, people, processes, and technology to achieve. For example, marketing, customer contact, or outbound telemarketing.
Explain definition of Concerns
The key interests that are crucially important to the stakeholders in a system, and determine the acceptability of the system.
Concerns may pertain to any aspect of the system's functioning, development, or operation, including considerations such as performance, reliability, security, distribution, and evolvability.
Explain definition of Constraints
An external factor that prevents an organization from pursuing particular approaches in meeting its goals.
Explain definition of Data Architecture
The structure of organization's logical and physical data assets and data management resources.
Explain definition of Deliverable
An architectural work product that is specified, reviewed, agreed and signed off by the stakeholder.
Explain definition of Gap
A statement of the difference between two states. Used in the context of gap analysis, where the difference between the Baseline and Target Architecture is identified.
Explain definition of Governance
The discipline of monitoring, managing and steering a business (or IS/IT landscape) to deliver the business outcome required.
Explain definition of Metadata
Data about data, of any sort in any media that describes the characteristics of an entity.
Explain definition of Metamodel
A model that describes how and with what architecture will be described in a structured way.
Explain definition of Objective
A time-bounded milestone for an organization used to demonstrate progress towards a goal.
Explain definition of Reference Model
A reference model is an abstract framework for understanding significant relationships among the entities of [an] environment, and for the development of consistent standards or specifications supporting that environment.
Explain definition of Solution Architecture
Solution Architecture typically applies to a single project, assisting in the translation of requirements into a solution.
Explain definition of Stakeholder
An individual, team, or organization (or classes thereof) with interests in, or concerns relative to, the outcome of the architecture.
Explain definition of Strategic Architecture
A summary formal description of the enterprise, providing an organizing framework for operational and change activity, and an executive-level, long-term view for direction setting.
Explain definition of Segment Architecture
A detailed, formal description of areas within an enterprise, used at the program or portfolio level to organize and align change activity.
Explain definition of Technology Architecture
The logical software and hardware capabilities required to support deployment of business, data and application services (eg. IT infrastructure, middleware, networks, ...)
Explain definition of Transition Architecture
Description of the EA showing periods of transition and development for particular parts of the enterprise.
Explain definition of View
A representation of related concerns. A view is seen from a viewpoint
Explain definition of Viewpoint
Perspective from which view is taken. A view is what you see, a viewpoint is where you are looking from
Explain the purpose of Preliminary ADM Phase
- Prepare the organization for TOGAF architecture projects
- Select framework and tools
- Define Architecture Principles
Explain the purpose of Phase A (Architecture Vision) ADM Phase
- Set the scope, constraints and expectations for a TOGAF project
- Define stakeholders
- Create Statement of Architecture Work
Explain the purpose of Phase B (Business Architecture) ADM Phase
Develop architecture in business domain
Explain the purpose of Phase C (Information Systems Architecture) ADM Phase
Develop architecture in data and application domains
Explain the purpose of Phase D (Technology Architecture) ADM Phase
Develop architecture in technology domain
Explain their purpose of Phase E (Opportunities and Solutions) ADM Phase
- Initial implementation planning
- identify major implementation projects and group them into Transition Architecture
Explain their purpose of Phase F (Migration Planning) ADM Phase
- Analize cost benefits and risk
- Develop detailed Implementation and Migration Plan
Explain their purpose of Phase G (Implementation Governance) ADM Phase
Ensure that the implementation project conforms to the architecture
Explain the purpose of Phase H (Architecture Change Management) ADM Phase
Continual monitoring and change management process to ensure that the architecture responds to the needs of the enterprise and maximizes the value of the architecture to the business
Explain the purpose of Requirements Management ADM Phase
Every stage of TOGAF project is based on and validates business requirements. Requirements are identified, stored and fed into and out revelant ADM phases.
How ADM is related to Enterprise Continuum and Architecture Repository
At relevant places throughout the ADM, there are reminders to consider which assets from Architecture Repository the architect should use, if any.
How ADM is related to Supporting Guidelines and Techniques
ADM guidelines and Techniques is a set of resources that directly support application of TOGAF ADM
What is the difference between guidelines and techniques
- Guideline describe how ADM process can be adopted to needs of the organization.
- Technique support specific task within the ADM (e.g. gap analysis)
What are the key points of ADM cycle
TOGAF ADM is iterative. New decisions have to be take at each iteration:
1. Enterprise coverage
2. Level of details
3. Time Period
4. Architecture re-use (previous ADM iterations, other frameworks, system models, etc...)
List main reasons for adopting the ADM
1. Adopt to architecture maturity level
2. Adopt to architecture principles
3. Adopt to other EA framework used in enterprise
4. Adopt to existing management processes
5. Adopt to processed of contractor's existing practices
6. In small/medium enterprises cut-down ADM to reduce costs
7. Large and complex enterprises may required more federated approach
Explain the need for governance of ADM
Compliance with the ADM is fundamental to the governance of the architecture, to ensure that all considerations are made and all required deliverables are produced.
What areas are managed by governance repository
1. Reference Data
2. Process Status
3. Audit Information
What is the reason for scoping an architecture activity
1. Authority of architecture team.
2. Objectives to be addressed by the architecture.
3. Availability of resources (people, finance, etc...).
List possible dimensions for limiting the scope
1. Enterprise scope or focus
2. Architecture Domains
3. Vertical scope / level of details
4. Time period
Why an integration framework is required that sits above individual architectures
1. Allow the architect to understand how components fit into the framework
2. Usage of architectural models that focus on enterprise-level capabilities
3. Define the conformance standards that enable the integration of components for maximum leverage and re-use
Explain how Enterprise Continuum is used in organizing and developing an architecture
Enterprise Continuum is an aid to communication between customer and vendor organizations (it provides consistent language)
Explain how Enterprise Continuum promotes re-use of architecture artifacts
It contains all architecture assets that exist both, within the enterprise and in the IT industry at large. The enterprise considers them all to be available for development of its architectures
List elements of Enterprise Continuum
1. Enterprise Continuum
2. Architecture Continuum
3. Solution Continuum
What is the purpose of Enterprise Continuum?
It classifies assets related to the context of the overall enterprise architecture. It contains two specializations, namely Architecture and Solution Continuum
What is the purpose of Architecture Continuum?
It contains ABBs and architecture models that are revelant during constructing an enterprise-specific architecture.
List stages of architecture evolution defined in the Architecture Continuum
1. Foundation Architecture.
2. Common Systems Architecture.
3. Industry Architecture.
4. Organization-Specific Architecture.
What is the purpose of Solution Continuum?
It represents implementations of the architectures at the corresponding levels of the Architecture Continuum
List stages of architecture evolution defined in the Solution Continuum
1. Foundation Solutions.
2. Common Systems Solutions.
3. Industry Solutions.
4. Organization Specific Solutions.
Describe classes of information held in Architecture Repository
1. Architecture Metamodel.
2. Architecture Capability.
3. Architecture Landscape.
4. Standards Information Base (SIB).
5. Reference Library.
6. Governance Log.
List three levels of Architecture landscape
1. Strategic Architecture.
2. Segment Architecture.
3. Capability Architecture.
What is the purpose of Standard Information Base
SIB hold the set of specifications to which architectures must conform. The benefits are:
- easy access to standards
- clear and unambiguous statement of standards.
What are high-level issues with tool standardization?
- A signgle "one size fits all" tool versus multiple tools
- Can a single tool address all needs at all maturity levels?
What are the objectives of Preliminary Phase?
1. Review organizational context.
2. Confirm stakeholders' commitment.
3. Scope elements of the organization, define assumptions and constraints.
4. Define "architecture footprint" (people doing arch. work).
5. Define framework, methodologies and supporting tools.
6. Define Architecture Principles.
What are the objectives of Phase A (Architecture Vision)?
1. Obtain management commitment for the cycle of ADM.
2. Define architecture development cycle.
3. Prioritize architecture tasks.
4. Identify stakeholders, their concerns and objectives.
5. Articulate Architecture Vision.
6. Obtain formal approval to proceed.
7. Understand impact on, and of other parallel ADMs.
What are the objectives of Phase B (Business Architecture)?
1. Describe the Baseline Business Architecture
2. Develop Target Business Architecture
3. Analyze gaps
4. Select tools and techniques for viewpoints
What are the objectives of Phase C (Information System Architecture)?
1. Data Architecture
2. Application Architecture
What are the objectives of Phase D (Technology Architecture)?
Develop target technology architecture
What are the objectives of Phase E (Opportunities and Solutions)?
1. Review target business objectives
2. Consolidate gaps from phases B, C, D
3. Organize groups of building blocks to address required capabilities
4. Confirm enterprise capabilities for the change
5. Create series of Transition Architectures to realize building blocks
What are the objectives of Phase F (Migration Planning)?
1. Ensure that Migration Plan is consistent with used management frameworks
2. Prioritize work packages, projects and building blocks and conduct cost /benefit analysis
3. Finalize Architecture Vision
4. Confirm Transition Architectures from phase E
5. Create detailed Implementation and Migration Plan
What are the objectives of Phase G (Implementation Governance)?
1. Create recommendations for each implementation project.
2. Govern and manage an Architecture Contract.
3. Perform governance functions.
4. Ensure that program of solution is deployed successfully.
5. Ensure conformance of deployed solution with Target Architecture.
What are the objectives of Phase H (Architecture Change Management)?
1. Ensure that Baseline Architecture continues to be fit-for-purpose.
2. Assess performance of architecture and make recommended changes.
3. Assess changes to framework and principles.
4. Establish Architecture Change Management process.
5. Maximize business value of architecture work.
6. Operate Governance framework.
How Requirements Management fits into the ADM cycle?
It applies to all phases of ADM. The process store, feeds in and out the requirements of relevant ADM phases
Describe approach to Phase D
Resources available in Architecture Repository must be considered:
1. Existing IT services
2. TOGAF TRM
3. Generic technology models relevant to organization's industry
Describe approach to Phase E
The phase focuses on how to deliver the architecture. It takes both business and technical perspective to rationalize IT activities and group them into work packages.
Describe approach to Phase F
The phase focuses on creation of detailed Migration and Implementation Plan
Describe approach to Phase G
1. Establish implementation program to deliver agreed Transition Architectures.
2. Follow organization's standards.
3. Use established project management approach.
4. Define operations framework to ensure long life of deployed solutions.
Describe approach to Phase H
1. Determine circumstances under which EA will be permitted to change.
2. Determine circumstances under which ADM cycle will be initiated to develop new architecture.
Describe approach to Requirements Management
Requirements management does not dispose, address or prioritize requirements. It focuses mostly on discovery and documentation of requirements.
Explain aspect of Preliminary Phase: Defining the Enterprise
Enterprise scope will determine those stakeholders who will derive the most benefit from enhanced enterprise. The enterprise may include many organizations and it is crucial to ensure that all stakeholders are included.
Explain aspect of Preliminary Phase: Identifying key drivers and elements in the organizational context
1. Commercial models and budget for EA.
2. The stakeholders.
3. Intentions and culture of the organization.
4. Current processes supporting change and operation of IT.
5. Baseline Architecture landscape.
6. Skills and capabilities of the enterprise.
Explain aspect of Preliminary Phase: Defining requirements for architecture work
Business drives requirements and perfomance metrics. One or more of the following need to be articulated:
1. Business requirements
2. Cultural aspirations
3. Organization intents
4. Strategic intent
5. Forecast financial requirements
Describe approach to Preliminary Phase
1. Defining the Enterprise
2. Identifying Organizational Context
3. Defining the Requirements for Architecture Work
4. Defining the Architecture Principles
5. Defining the framework
6. Evaluating the Enterprise Architecture Maturity
Explain aspect of Preliminary Phase: Defining the framework
Define with what other frameworks TOGAF will be integrated. The main areas are:
1. Business Capability Management
2. Protfolio/Project Management
3. Operations Management
4. Solution Development Methods
Explain aspect of Preliminary Phase: Outline EA maturity
Level of maturity measure organization's ability to change.
Explain aspect of Phase A: Creating the Architecture Vision
Architecture Vision provides the sponsor with a key tool to sell benefits of proposed capability to stakeholders.
Explain aspect of Phase A: Business scenarios
A technique for identifying and articluating business requirements
Explain aspect of Phase B: Developing the Baseline Description
Description of current architecture state, usually made bottom-up. (Target Architecture is usually done top-down)
Explain aspect of Phase B: Business modeling
1. Activity Models (aka Business process models)
2. Use-Case Models
3. Class Models (?)
Explain aspect of Phase B: Using the Architecture Repository
Resources available in Architecture Repository must be considered:
1. Generic business models
2. Business models relevant to high-level business domain
3. Enterprise-specific building blocks
4. Appicable standards
Explain aspect of Phase C: Key considerations of Data Architecture
1. Data Management
2. Data Migration
3. Data Governance
Explain aspect of Phase C: Using the Architecture Repository
Resources available in Architecture Repository must be considered:
1. Data architecture models
2. Application architecture models
Briefly explain content of Part III of TOGAF 9
ADM Guidelines and techniques contains collection of tools for use in TOGAF and ADM
Briefly explain the need for architecture principles and where they are used in TOGAF
Architecture principles are set of general and eduring rules for architecture being developed that are supporting organization's mission. Principles are the output of Preliminary Phase and they are used throughout the ADM to guide making decisions within the enterprise.
Describe standard template for architecture principles
What makes a good architecture principle.
What business scenario is and its purpose
A technique that helps in identification of business requirements. It describes:
1. business process or application(s).
2. business and technology environment.
3. people and computing components (actors) involved in the scenario.
4. Outcome of scenario execution.
Where business scenarios are used within the ADM
- Usually in Phase A: Architecture Vision.
- They may also be used in phase B: Business Architecture
What is the purpose of gap analysis
- to validate the architeure being developed
- to highlight the shortfall between Base and target Architecture
Describe the gap analysis technique
1. Draw matrix with ABBs of Baseline (vertical axis) and Target Architecture (horizontal axis)
2. Add "New ABBs" to Baseline axis and "Eliminated ABB" to Target axis
3. Mark ABBs as "Included", "Eliminated" or "New"
4. "New ABBs" and "Eliminated ABBs" describes the gap
Explain term of interoperability.
Ability to share information and service. It may concern:
1. Operational/Business Interoperability.
2. Information Interoperability.
3. Technical Interoperability.
4. Presentation Interoperability.
5. Application Interoperability.
Explain the use of interoperability requirements within the TOGAF ADM
A: Security considerations.
B: Information and services exchange in business terms.
C: Information and application sharing.
D: Specifying technical mechanisms to permit information and services exchange.
E: Actual solutions are selected.
F: Interoperability is implemented.
Explain Business Transformation Readiness program
A technique for understanding the readiness of the organization to accept the change.
Where Business Transformation Readiness is used within the ADM?
Initial assessment is carried out in phase A and it is a key to successful transformation in phases E and F.
Explain characteristics of risk management
There are two levels of risk:
1. Initial: before implementation of mitigation plans.
2. Residual: after implementation of mitigation plans.
Where risk management is used within the TOGAF ADM?
All ADM phases
Explain Capability-Based Planning
Business planning technique that focuses on delivery of strategic capabilities to the enterprise.
What is the concept of Architecture Governance?
1. Implementing a system of control over creation of all architectural components to ensure effective implementation.
2. Implementing a system to ensure compliance with internal and external standards.
3. Establish processes to support effective management.
4. Develop practices that ensure accountability.
What concepts make up Architecture Governance Framewok?
4. Process Flow
Why Architecture Governance is beneficial?
1. Links IT processes, resources and information to organization strategy.
2. Aligns with industry frameworks.
3. Protects underlying digital assets.
4. Supports regulatory and best practices (e.g. audit ability, security, responsibility, ...).
5. Promotes visible risk management.
Why to have Architecture Board?
A cross-organizational board oversee implementation of the governance strategy and provide appropriate political backing. The body should be representative of all key stakeholders in architecture.
What are responsibilities of Architecture Board?
1. Consistency between sub-architectures.
2. Identifying re-usable components.
3. Flexibility of EA (to meet business needs).
4. Enforcement of Architecture Capabilities.
5. Improving maturity level of architecture discipline.
6. Providing basis for decision-making.
What is the role of Architecture Contract?
The contract is a joint agreement between development partners and sponsors on deliverables, quality and fitness-for-purpose. Successful implementation of this agreement is done through Architecture Governance.
What means Architecture Compliance?
1. Irrelevant (no match).
2. Consistent (partially match).
3. Compliant (missing features).
4. Conformant (extra features).
5. Fully Conformant (perfect).
6. Non-conformant (wrong).
What is the need for Architecture Compliance?
Ensuring compliance of individual project within the EA.
What is the purpose of Architecture Compliance Review?
1. Catch errors in projects early.
2. Ensure application of best practices.
3. Provide the overview of architecture compliance.
4. Identify where standards need modification.
5. To identify services that could be re-used.
6. Communicate management status of technical readiness of the project.
What is the process of Architecture Compliance Review?
1. Identify responsible Organization.
2. Identify Lead Architect.
3. Determine Scope of review.
4. Tailor Checklist.
5. Schedule review meeting.
6. Interview project principals.
7. Analyze completed checklists.
8. Prepare Review Report.
9. Present review findings.
10. Accept, Review and sign off.
How the ADM can be used to establish architecture capabilities?
Establishing capabilities can be achieved by using ADM, what requires:
1. Business Architecture of Architecture practice.
2. Data Architecture that defines Enterprise Continuum and Architecture Repository.
3. Application Architecture specifies application required in Architecture, practice.
4. Technology Architecture that supports Architecture applications and Enterprise Continuum.
Explain approach taken in Building Blocks Example from TOGAF
1. Identify Building Block Scope.
2. Identify Building Block Requirements and Constraints.
3. Model Architecture.
4. Identify Opportunities.
5. Identify Building Blocks for Re-Use.
What is the role of TRM as Foundation Architecture?
What are major characteristics of Foundation Architecture?
Explain concepts of III-RM
What is relationship between III-RM and Boundaryless Information Flow
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Essentials of Business Research | Silver, Stevens, Kernek, Wrenn, Loudon
MIS Chapter 9
TOGAF 9 Foundation: Core Concepts
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
TOGAF 9.1 ADM Phases - Objectives
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Togaf Test study set
TOGAF 9 Foundation Study Guide
TOGAF 9.1 Inputs, Steps and Outputs by Phase