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Terms in this set (87)
A worker in a cheese-making facility argued that whey, a nutrient-rich by-product of the process, should be dumped into a nearby pond to serve as fish food. Is this a good idea or a bad one, and why?
c. Bad idea-bacteria would thrive on this rich nutrient source and multiply readily. As they multiply, they'll use the oxygen in the water to harvest the energy from the whey, depleting it. As the oxygen depletes below a certain point, the fish (and perhaps other organisms) will not be able to survive.
Which is/are true of coenzymes?
e. All of the choices are correct.
(hey are organic molecules, They transfer atoms from one molecule to another, They may bind to a number of different enzymes, They are synthesized from vitamins.)
Glycolysis, the Entner-Duodoroff pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway all produce
Coenzymes are derivatives of
Generally the proteins of thermophiles
Shake tubes are used to determine the
oxygen requirements for bacterial growth.
The transition step
links glycolysis to the TCA cycle.
In the electron transport system
NADH donates electrons "upstream" of where FADH2 donates electrons.
You are working in a clinical laboratory in a hospital setting. You're handed a throat swab from a patient. You are told specifically that the physician is only interested in the presence and type of Gram positive cells. Identification isn't the main goal here-just a first step to work towards determining what Gram positive cells might be there.What might you do first to go about working towards this goal?
b. Perform a Gram stain.
A physician sends a stool sample to your lab, and wants to know if there are lactose fermenting microbes in the sample. How might you determine if these microbes are present or not from this mixed-microbe specimen?
Streak the sample for isolation on a MacConkey agar plate (which contains lactose and a pH indicator that turns pink when acid byproducts are present).
During which phase of growth are bacteria most susceptible to antibiotics?
c. Exponential (log)
Why would a cell ferment rather than respire?
c. There is no oxygen present and it cannot use anaerobic respiration OR it lacks the ability to
A medium that inhibits the growth of organisms other than the one being sought is termed a(n)
Candle jars are usually used to
b. provide an atmosphere with CO2.
d. may occur under aerobic or anaerobic conditions.
Mycobacterium leprae is typically found infecting the ears, toes, and fingers of its host due to its
need for cooler temperatures.
The terminal electron acceptor in respiration may be
oxygen, nitrate, AND an inorganic molecule.
MacConkey agar is
a. a selective and differential agar.
The TCA cycle produces
e. All of the choices are correct.
(ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation, NADH, precursor metabolites. )
Enzymes speed up reactions by
d. lowering activation energy.
A hot tub (approx. 104°F or 40°C) would most likely contain
The enzymes that deal with toxic oxygen-containing molecules is/are
e. superoxide dismutase AND catalase.
c. have an additional binding site that is involved in regulating enzyme activity.
The mutual interaction of substrate and enzyme is described as a(n)
b. induced fit.
The electron transport system
e. requires a membrane AND generates a concentration gradient of protons.
Which is true of competitive inhibition?
e. Substrate and inhibitor both bind to the active site AND a sulfa antibiotic is a competitive inhibitor.
Shake tubes are used to determine the
d. oxygen requirements for bacterial growth.
The name given to the reaction involving addition of electrons or hydrogen atoms to a compound is termed
All the bacterial cells that result from the replication of a single original bacterial organism are said to be a
b. pure culture.
Oxygen serves as the terminal electron acceptor in
c. aerobic respiration.
The scientist that contributed most to the development of pure culture techniques was
d. Robert Koch.
Environmental factors that may affect enzyme activity include
d. temperature, pH, AND salt.
Enzymes act as
Which of the following is/are obligate aerobes?
d. Micrococcus luteus
Bacteria may be stored
e. on a slant in the refrigerator, frozen in glycerol solution, AND freeze-dried.
Biosynthetic reactions that require energy for the conversion of molecular subunits into larger molecules are called
b. anabolic reactions.
The simplest technique for isolating bacteria in growth media is referred to as the
d. streak-plate method.
Organisms that use CO2 as their source of carbon are called
a. is also known as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway.
Which of the following processes generates the greatest amount of energy?
b. Aerobic respiration
The optimal temperature for most human pathogens
are a polysaccharide-encased community of microorganisms, may enhance bioremediation efforts, AND may protect organisms against harmful chemicals.
During which phase of the bacterial growth curve does the total number of viable cells decline?
Late log phase of the bacterial growth curve
is marked by the production of secondary metabolites.
The speed of enzymatic reactions approximately doubles for each
10° C rise in temperature.
Organisms that require gaseous oxygen for metabolism are referred to as
Nutrient supplements and ethanol are made from this product
More fit cells are made during this phase
Phase of prolonged decline
Maintain stock culture by:
Freezing of cells at -70 by adding glycerol of lyophilization
The general term used to describe the anabolic and catabolic reactions in a cell is
. has chemical and physical properties that make it almost ideal for solidifying media.
Small organic molecules that must be provided to bacteria in order for them to grow are called
The most common starting pathway for the breakdown of sugars is.
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur may be considered
In a rapidly multiplying bacterial population, cell numbers increase
Freezing is an effective means of destroying bacteria.
Competitive inhibition usually involves both substrate and inhibitor competing for binding at the allosteric site.
The readily usable energy currency of cells is
The use of the suffix "ase" on a word denotes a(n)
The name given to the reaction involving removal of electrons or hydrogen atoms from a compound is termed
Organisms may derive energy from
sunlight AND metabolizing chemical compounds.
In microbiology, growth usually refers to an increase in size of the bacteria.
Enzymes act on _______ to produce ________.
Products which limit pH changes are often incorporated into media and are referred to as
The production of ATP via the electron transport system, in either eukaryotes or prokaryotes, requires the use of a membrane.
Growth factors are
Compounds that must be provided to the organism
High concentrations of salt and sugar in foods
are useful in preserving the food AND tend to draw water out of a cell.
Energy is defined as
the capacity to do work
Organisms that use organic molecules as their source of carbon are called
It is assumed that every colony observed on a streak plate arose from a single bacterium.
Experiments designed by ______________ suggested that living cells caused the fermentation of sugar to produce alcohol.
Secondary metabolites may be antibiotics.
occur when there is more free energy in the reactants than the products.
Which is true regarding the three central metabolic pathways?
all choices (. They form high energy bonds that can be used to synthesize ATP
B. They form intermediates that can be oxidized to generate reducing power
C. They form precursor metabolites)
is a means of regulating the amount of product produced AND often involves the use of allosteric enzymes.
Bacteria that can absorb light energy and convert it into ATP are commonly called
use pre-formed organic molecules as a carbon source AND as an energy source.
Concerning catabolism and anabolism,
the intermediates of one serve as the reactants in the other AND the energy gathered in one is utilized in the other.
include zinc, copper, and manganese, AND may be needed for enzyme function.
is the amount of energy gained by breaking bonds of a chemical.
NAD in its reduced form is symbolized as
A urine sample with more than 100,000 organisms is considered indicative of infection. If a urine sample containing 5,000 bacteria with a generation time of 30 minutes sits for 3 hours before finally being assayed, how many bacteria will then be present?
Agar replaced gelatin as the gelling (solidifying) agent for media because
fewer bacteria can break down agar than gelatin AND agar is solid at body temperature.
has chemical and physical properties that make it almost ideal for solidifying media.
In nature, bacteria
all choices (often grow in close association with many other kinds of organisms.
b. may remain in a prolonged exponential phase.
c. frequently snthesize structures such as slime layers.
d. may adhere to surface by means of pili and slime layers.)
Pure culture in the exponential growth phase has a bacterial concentration of 6.4 x 108 cells/ml. If the bacterium has a generation time of 1 h, how long ago was the cell concentration 8.0 x 107 cells/ml?
The sugar component of RNA and DNA nucleotides are synthesized
as ribose and then changed to deoxyribose
Recommended textbook explanations
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
David L Nelson, Michael M. Cox
Fundamentals of Biochemistry
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Principles of Life
David E. Sadava, David M. Hillis, H. Craig Heller
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