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TRAIT THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Terms in this set (27)
a personality characteristic that endures (lasts) over time and across different situations.
focus on measuring, identifying and describing individual differences in personality - in terms of traits.
1. Personality traits are relatively stable and predictable over time.
2. Personality traits are relatively stable across different situations.
3. Trait theories take into account that personality consists of a number of different traits, but some people have more or less of each trait then others.
4. Some traits are more closely interrelated than others/ tend to occur together.
Allport's hierarchy of traits
listed 18000 words from the dictionary that are used to define personality. He then shortened the list by putting all the words that are similar together. Then it became 4500 words.
Allport's trait theory
includes cardinal traits, central traits and secondary traits.
is a personality trait which is a motivator/ driving force + determinant of behavior. Very dominant, but rare, not always negative.
is a personality trait which is present in varying degrees in all people within a culture or society. These are the building blocks of out personality.
is a personality trait which is present in varying degrees in all people. Dependent on specific situation as to whether it can influence behavior or not.
Cattel's 16 personality factor model
condensed Allport's list into 16 key source traits.
lies on the 'surface' of personality and be directly observed through the behavior of a person.
is an underlying trait that can be observed in behavior through the set of surface traits which reflect it. It is an underlying thing that drives us.
is a personality test designed by Cattell. Has 185 questions and can provide an overally 'picture' into an individuals personality.
Ensenck's p.e.n model
Ensenck reduced Cattell's 16pf model to three. It includes psychoticism, extraversion - introversion, and neuroticism - emotional stability.
refers to the level of aggression/ self centeredness in a person. It encompasses lower level traits (cold/ impulsive etc.)
Sociable, outgoing, talkative, enjoy interacting with others
Risk takers, love excitement, enjoy change, need external stimulation
Quiet, thoughtful, reserved
Avoid excitement and social contact
Neuroticism - emotional stability
Worried, emotional, moody, tense, restless
Emotional stability end
Calm, relaxed, high in emotional stability
Ensenck personality questionnaire is designed to evaluate the personality of people ages 18+. It includes 160 self report items.
Costa and mccrae's 5 factor ocean model
Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism.
The neo tests
are a personality inventory. The first is the revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PR-I) and the second in the NEO Five- Facto Inventory (NEO-FI)
Strengths of trait theories
provides useful descriptions of personality and it's structure, provided foundation for the development of valid and reliable personality assessment devices.
Limitations of trait theories
can lead people to accept and use oversimplified descriptions of people, underestimates the uniqueness of each individual.
Humanistic theories of personality
are based on the assumption that all people are born good and all individuals will strive to reach their full potential.
Roger's person - centered theory
this involves ideology regarding the true self, ideal self and your self image.
Client centered therapy
is a non-directive way of attempting therapy. Therapists do not provide specific advice on how to solve problems, rather the client is viewed as having the power to improve themselves.
Q sort test
human theorists believe that you cannot score or rate personality to gain a personality profile. It is a test mainly used during therapy to examine the self-concept and the extent to which the true self and ideal self.
Strengths of humanistic theories
focus on the positive dimensions of personality, give a complete picture of how the healthy personality develops
Limitations of humanistic theories
they encourage the individual to focus on their own self fulfilment which may or may not be realistic or even appropriate in society. It is also non-scientifically based and extremely subjective.
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