Chapter 30: The War to End War, 1917-1918
True/False; Multiple Choice; Identification; Matching People, Places, and Event; Putting Things in Order; Matching Cause and Effect
Terms in this set (75)
Germany responded to Wilson's call for "peace without victory" by proposing a temporary armistice.
Wilson's proclamation of the war as a crusade to end all war and spread democracy around the world inspired intense ideological enthusiasm among Americans.
Among Wilson's Fourteen Points were freedom of the seas, national self-determination for minorities, and an international organization to secure peace.
The Committee on Public Information used an aroused American patriotism more than formal laws and censorship to promote the war cause.
The primary targets of prosecution under the Espionage and Sedition Acts were German and Austrian agents in the United States.
Even during the war mobilization, Americans were extremely reluctant to grant the federal government extensive powers over the economy.
Despite bitter and sometimes violent strikes, American labor made economic and organizational gains as a result of World War I.
War-inspired black migration into northern cities led to major racial riots in 1917-1919.
The passage of the Nineteenth Amendment granting women's suffrage guaranteed the permanence of women's wartime economic gains.
American troops actually played only a small role in the Allies' final victory.
When Woodrow Wilson arrived in Europe, the European public hailed him as a hero and a peacemaking savior.
Wilson's skillful handling of Republican political opposition strengthened his hand at the Paris Peace Conference.
Other Allied leaders forced Wilson to make serious compromises in his Fourteen Points in order to keep the League of Nations in the Treaty of Versailles.
Wilson's unwillingness to compromise and accept Republican reservations to the Treaty of Versailles sent the whole treaty down to defeat.
In the election of 1920, Republican Harding supported the League of Nations while Democrat Cox tried to evade the issue.
Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare.
The immediate cause of American entry into World War I was...
proclaiming an ideological war to end war and make the world asafe for democracy.
Wilson aroused the somewhat divided American people to fervent support of the war by...
an international organization to guarantee collective security.
The capstone "Fourteenth Point" of Wilson's declaration of war aims called for...
to whip up public support for the war and promote anti-German propaganda.
The purpose of George Creel's Committee on Public Information was...
the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act.
The two key laws aimed at enforcing loyalty and suppressing antiwar dessent were...
German Americans and socialists.
Among the primary victims of the prowar propaganda campaign to enforce loyalty were...
a constitutional amendment granting women the right to vote.
The mobilization for war gave new momentum to the movement for...
mining and steel industries.
Particularly violent strikes erupted during and after World War I in the...
segregated, non-combat support units.
During World War I, African American military men served primarily in...
in World War I it was not possible to purchase an exemption or to hire a substitute.
A major difference between the World War I Selective Service Act and the Civil War draft was that...
a renewed German offensive was threatening to break through to Paris.
American soldiers were especially needed in France in the spring of 1918 because...
America's European allies.
Most of the military supplies for General Pershing's expeditionary force came from...
include any Republicans in the delegation.
Wilson blundered when choosing the American peace delegation by failing to...
forcing him to compromise his ideals on matters of self-determination and punishment of Germany.
The European powers and Japan weakened Wilson at the peace conference by...
he ordered Democratic senators to defeat the pro-League treaty with the Lodge reservations.
Wilson bore considerable responsibility for the failure of the United States to join the League of Nations because...
Peace Without Victory
Wilson's appeal to all the belligerents in January 1917, just before the Germans resumed submarine warfare.
Message that contained a German proposal to Mexico for an anti-American alliance.
Wilson's idealistic statement of American war aims in January 1918 that inspired the Allies and demoralized their enemies.
Committee on Public Information
American government propaganda agency that aroused zeal for Wilson's ideals and whipped up hatred for the kaiser.
Industrial Workers of the World
Radical antiwar labor union whose members were prosecuted under the Espionage and Sedition Act.
War Industries Board
Weak federal agency designed to organize and coordinate U.S. industrial production for the war effort.
Constitutional provision endorsed by Wilson as a war measure whose ratification achieved a long-sought goal for American women.
Liberty Loan Drives
Treasury Department bond-selling drives that raised about $21 billion to finance the American war effort.
The nations that dominated the Paris Peace Conference - namely, Britain, France, Italy, and the United States.
League of Nations
Wilson's proposed international body that constituted the key provision of the Versailles treaty.
Treaty of Versailles
Controversial peace agreement that compormised many of Wilson's Fourteen Points but retained his League.
Senate Foreign Relations Committee
Senatorial committee whose chairman used delaying tactics and hostile testimony to develop opposition to Wilson's treaty and League of Nations.
A hard core of isolationist senators who bitterly opposed any sort of league; also called the "Batallion of Death."
Amendments to the proposed Treaty of Versailles, sponsored by Wilson's hated senatorial opponent, that attempted to guarantee America's sovereign rights in relation to the League of Nations.
Wilson's belief that the presidential election of 1920 should constitute a direct popular vote on the League of Nations.
Head of the American propaganda agency that mobilized public opinion for World War I.
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist leader who won nearly a million votes as a presidential candidate while in federal prison for antiwar activities.
Head of the War Industries Board, which attempted to impose some order on U.S. war production.
Head of the Food Administration who pioneered successful voluntary mobilization methods.
John J. Pershing
Commander of the overseas American Expeditionary Force in World War I.
Leader of the pacifist National Women's Party who opposed U.S. involvement in World War I.
Climactic final battle of World War I.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Hated leader of America's enemy in World War I.
Inspirational leader of the Western world in wartime who later stumbled as a peacemaker.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Wilson's great senatorial antagonist who fought to keep America out of the League of Nations.
The "tiger" of France, whose drive fore security forced Wilson to compromise at Versailles.
Senatorial leader of the isolationist "irreconcilables" who absolutely opposed all American involvement in Europe.
Defeated Democratic presidential candidate in the election of 1920.
Massachusetts governor and Warren G. Harding's vice presidential running mate in the election of 1920.
Warren G. Harding
Folksy Ohio senator whose 1920 presidential vicotry ended the last hopes for U.S. participation in the League of Nations.
Germany's resumption of submarin warfare forces the United States onto a declaration of war.
The Senate's final defeat of teh Versailles treaty and a Republican election victory end Wilson's last hopes for American entry into the League of Nations.
The United States takes the first hesitant steops towar preparedness in the event of war.
The effectiveness of American combat troops in crucial battles helps bring about an Allied victory in World War I.
Wilson struggles with other Allied leaders in Paris to hammer out a peace treaty and organize the postwar world.
Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare...
finally pushed the United States into World War I.
Wilson's Fourteen Points...
lifted Allied and American spirites and demoalized Germany and its allies.
The wartime atmosphere of emotional patriotism and fear...
caused harsh attacks on German Americans and other Americans who opposed the war.
Women's labor in wartime factories...
helped pass the Nineteenth Amendment but did not really change society's emphasis on the maternal role.
The migration of African Americans to northern cities...
led to major racial violence in Chicago and East St. Louis, Illinois.
American troops' entry into combat in the spring and summer of 1918...
stopped the final German offensive and turned the tide toward Alied victory.
Wilson's political blunders in the fall of 1918...
Weakened the president's position during the peacemaking process.
The strong diplomatic demands of France, Italy, and Japan...
forced Wilson to compromise his Fourteen Points in order to keep the League as part of the peace treaty.
Senator Lodge's tactics of delaying and proposing reservations in the Versailles treaty...
allowed domestic disillusionment and opposition to the treaty and League to build strength.
Wilson's refusal to accept any reservations supported by Lodge...
forced Democrats to vote against a modified treaty and killed American participation in the League of Nations.