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The four types of muscles identified by different patterns of organization are:

Parallel, convergent, pennate, circular

In a convergent muscle the muscle fibers are:

based over a broad area, but all the fibers come together at a common attachment site

What kind of lever is one in which the fulcrum lies between the applied force and the resistance?

A first-class lever

The effect of an arrangement where a force is applied between the resistance and the fulcrum illustrates the principles operating:

third-class levers

The immovable attachment of muscle to bone or other connective tissue is referred to as the:


what kind of muscles position or stabilize an organ

Extrinsic muscles

The reason we use bicep to describe a particular muscle is:

there are two tendons of origin

A muscle whose contraction is chiefly responsible for producing a particular movement is called

a prime mover

muscles are classified functionally as synergists when:

the movement involves flexion and extension

an example of a parallel muscle with a central body or belly is the:

biceps brachii

Circular muscles that guard entrances and exits of internal passageways are called:


the most common levers in the body are classified as:

third class levers

the type of lever in which a small force can move a larger weight is classified as a

second class lever

the stationary, immovable, or less movable attachment of a muscle is called the


a muscle that assists the prime mover in performing a particular action is a


the term that identifies the region of the body behind the knew is


the term that identifies the neck region of the body is


slender band of collagen fibers


tendon branches within muscles


first-class lever


second-class lever


stationary muscle attachment


movable muscle attachment


prime mover


oppose action of prime mover


3 types of muscle tissue

cardiac, smooth, skeletal

example of where cardiac muscle is


type of control in cardiac muscle


characteristics of cardiac muscle

striated, single nucleus

where is smooth muscle found


type of control of smooth muscle


smooth muscle consist of:

thorax and abdomen

characteristic of smooth muscle

nonstriated, single nucleus

what is skeletal muscle attached to?


type of control in skeletal muscle


characteristics in skeletal muscle

striated, multinucleated

what does muscle contain

muscle bundles (fascicles)

what do fascicles contain

muscle fibers (cells)

what do muscle fibers contain


what do myofibrils contain


myofilaments contain functional units called


sarcomeres contain

thin and thick filaments

thin filaments contain the protein:


actin forms

I band

i band is attached to

z lines

actin also combines with myosin to form the

a band

thick filaments contain the protein


myosin forms

h zone

the h zone includes

m line

h zone and m line are parts of the

a band

muscle tissues are highly specialized for producing


the dense layer of collagen fibers surrounding a muscle is called the


the dense regular connective tissue that attaches skeletal muscle to bones is known as a


the cell membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber is called the


structures that distribute the command to contract within a muscle fiber are called

t tubules

muscle cells contain contractible units called


because they connect thick and thin filaments, the myosin heads are also known as


the boundary between adjacent sarcomeres is marked by the

z lines

the conducted charge in the transmembrane potential is called an

action potential

the increase in muscular tension produced by increasing the number of active motor units called


active site exposure during the contraction process occurs when calcium binds to


the interactions between the thick and the thin filaments produce


when the calcium ion concentration in the cytoplasm prolongs the contraction state, making it continuous, the contraction is called

complete tetanus

a muscle producing peak tension during rapid cycles of contraction and relaxation is said to be in

incomplete tetanus

an indication of how fine the control of movement can be is determined by the size of the

motor unit

by controlling the number of activated muscle fibers, you can control the amount of tension produced by the

skeletal muscle

the "staircase" phenomenon during which the peak muscle tension rises in stages is called


a single-stimulus-contraction-relaxation sequence in a muscle fiber is a


when muscles are actively contracting, the process requires large amounts of energy in the form of


at peak activity levels, most of the ATP is provided by glycolysis, leading to the production of

lactic acid

a skeletal muscle continues to contract even when mitochondrial activity is limited by the availability of oxygen due to the process of


muscles dominated by fast fibers are sometimes referred to as

white muscle

muscles dominated by slow fibers are sometimes referred to as

red muscles

the amount of oxygen used in the recovery period to restore normal pre-exertion conditions is referred to as

oxygen debt

the amount of time of contractions in cardiac muscle tissues is determined by specialized muscle fibers called

pacemaker cells

the ability of smooth muscle to function over a wide range of lengths is called


spindle-shaped cells with a single, centrally located nucleus are characteristics of

smooth muscle

in the digestive and urinary systems, the rings of smooth muscle that regulate the movement of materials along internal passageways are called


produce body movements

skeletal muscle

muscle bundles


broad sheet


bundle of collagen fiber


embryonic cells


thick filaments


synaptic cleft

neuromuscular junction

actin-myosin interaction


peak tension

contraction phase

measures external tension


resting tension

muscle tone

creatine phosphate

energy reserve

lowers intracellular pH

lactic acid

red muscles

slow fibers

lactic acid

anaerobic glycolysis

cardiac muscle fibers

intercalated discs

smooth muscle cell

no striations

timing of contractions

pacemaker cells

specialized cells that function in the repair of damaged muscle tissue are called

satellite cells

during development, groups of embryonic cells that fuse together to create individual muscle fibers are called


resting tension in a skeletal muscle is called

muscle tone

the ability of a stretched smooth muscle to function over a wide range of lengths is called


the time when a muscle cell cannot be stimulated because depolarization is occurring is the

absolute refactory period

the condition that results when a muscle is stimulated but cannot contract is referred to as


in a sarcomere, the dark bands (anisotropic bands) are referred to as

A bands

a single cranial or spinal motor neuron and the muscle fibers it inntervates comprise a

motor unit

at sufficiently high stimulation frequencies, the overlapping twitches result in one strong, steady contraction referred to as


when the muscle shortens but its tension remains the same the contraction is


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