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106 terms

A&P Muscles

The four types of muscles identified by different patterns of organization are:
Parallel, convergent, pennate, circular
In a convergent muscle the muscle fibers are:
based over a broad area, but all the fibers come together at a common attachment site
What kind of lever is one in which the fulcrum lies between the applied force and the resistance?
A first-class lever
The effect of an arrangement where a force is applied between the resistance and the fulcrum illustrates the principles operating:
third-class levers
The immovable attachment of muscle to bone or other connective tissue is referred to as the:
what kind of muscles position or stabilize an organ
Extrinsic muscles
The reason we use bicep to describe a particular muscle is:
there are two tendons of origin
A muscle whose contraction is chiefly responsible for producing a particular movement is called
a prime mover
muscles are classified functionally as synergists when:
the movement involves flexion and extension
an example of a parallel muscle with a central body or belly is the:
biceps brachii
Circular muscles that guard entrances and exits of internal passageways are called:
the most common levers in the body are classified as:
third class levers
the type of lever in which a small force can move a larger weight is classified as a
second class lever
the stationary, immovable, or less movable attachment of a muscle is called the
a muscle that assists the prime mover in performing a particular action is a
the term that identifies the region of the body behind the knew is
the term that identifies the neck region of the body is
slender band of collagen fibers
tendon branches within muscles
first-class lever
second-class lever
stationary muscle attachment
movable muscle attachment
prime mover
oppose action of prime mover
3 types of muscle tissue
cardiac, smooth, skeletal
example of where cardiac muscle is
type of control in cardiac muscle
characteristics of cardiac muscle
striated, single nucleus
where is smooth muscle found
type of control of smooth muscle
smooth muscle consist of:
thorax and abdomen
characteristic of smooth muscle
nonstriated, single nucleus
what is skeletal muscle attached to?
type of control in skeletal muscle
characteristics in skeletal muscle
striated, multinucleated
what does muscle contain
muscle bundles (fascicles)
what do fascicles contain
muscle fibers (cells)
what do muscle fibers contain
what do myofibrils contain
myofilaments contain functional units called
sarcomeres contain
thin and thick filaments
thin filaments contain the protein:
actin forms
I band
i band is attached to
z lines
actin also combines with myosin to form the
a band
thick filaments contain the protein
myosin forms
h zone
the h zone includes
m line
h zone and m line are parts of the
a band
muscle tissues are highly specialized for producing
the dense layer of collagen fibers surrounding a muscle is called the
the dense regular connective tissue that attaches skeletal muscle to bones is known as a
the cell membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber is called the
structures that distribute the command to contract within a muscle fiber are called
t tubules
muscle cells contain contractible units called
because they connect thick and thin filaments, the myosin heads are also known as
the boundary between adjacent sarcomeres is marked by the
z lines
the conducted charge in the transmembrane potential is called an
action potential
the increase in muscular tension produced by increasing the number of active motor units called
active site exposure during the contraction process occurs when calcium binds to
the interactions between the thick and the thin filaments produce
when the calcium ion concentration in the cytoplasm prolongs the contraction state, making it continuous, the contraction is called
complete tetanus
a muscle producing peak tension during rapid cycles of contraction and relaxation is said to be in
incomplete tetanus
an indication of how fine the control of movement can be is determined by the size of the
motor unit
by controlling the number of activated muscle fibers, you can control the amount of tension produced by the
skeletal muscle
the "staircase" phenomenon during which the peak muscle tension rises in stages is called
a single-stimulus-contraction-relaxation sequence in a muscle fiber is a
when muscles are actively contracting, the process requires large amounts of energy in the form of
at peak activity levels, most of the ATP is provided by glycolysis, leading to the production of
lactic acid
a skeletal muscle continues to contract even when mitochondrial activity is limited by the availability of oxygen due to the process of
muscles dominated by fast fibers are sometimes referred to as
white muscle
muscles dominated by slow fibers are sometimes referred to as
red muscles
the amount of oxygen used in the recovery period to restore normal pre-exertion conditions is referred to as
oxygen debt
the amount of time of contractions in cardiac muscle tissues is determined by specialized muscle fibers called
pacemaker cells
the ability of smooth muscle to function over a wide range of lengths is called
spindle-shaped cells with a single, centrally located nucleus are characteristics of
smooth muscle
in the digestive and urinary systems, the rings of smooth muscle that regulate the movement of materials along internal passageways are called
produce body movements
skeletal muscle
muscle bundles
broad sheet
bundle of collagen fiber
embryonic cells
thick filaments
synaptic cleft
neuromuscular junction
actin-myosin interaction
peak tension
contraction phase
measures external tension
resting tension
muscle tone
creatine phosphate
energy reserve
lowers intracellular pH
lactic acid
red muscles
slow fibers
lactic acid
anaerobic glycolysis
cardiac muscle fibers
intercalated discs
smooth muscle cell
no striations
timing of contractions
pacemaker cells
specialized cells that function in the repair of damaged muscle tissue are called
satellite cells
during development, groups of embryonic cells that fuse together to create individual muscle fibers are called
resting tension in a skeletal muscle is called
muscle tone
the ability of a stretched smooth muscle to function over a wide range of lengths is called
the time when a muscle cell cannot be stimulated because depolarization is occurring is the
absolute refactory period
the condition that results when a muscle is stimulated but cannot contract is referred to as
in a sarcomere, the dark bands (anisotropic bands) are referred to as
A bands
a single cranial or spinal motor neuron and the muscle fibers it inntervates comprise a
motor unit
at sufficiently high stimulation frequencies, the overlapping twitches result in one strong, steady contraction referred to as
when the muscle shortens but its tension remains the same the contraction is