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Native Tribes

Terms in this set (9)

Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries from the southern part of what is now New York, through Pennsylvania, to the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland[1] at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay. During the early colonialization of New Netherland, the Susquehannock traded furs with the Dutch. As early as 1623, they were struggling to get past the Lenape (later known as the Delaware) along the Delaware River to trade with the Dutch at New Amsterdam. In 1634, The Susquehannock defeated the Delaware, who may have become tributaries. In 1638, Swedish settlers established New Sweden in the Delaware Valley, at a location enabling them to intercept the Susquehannock fur trade with the Dutch.
In 1642, the English Province of Maryland declared war on the Susquehannock. With the help of the Swedes, the Susquehannock defeated the English in 1644. The Susquehannock were in an inactive state of war with Maryland until 1652. As a result, they traded almost exclusively with New Sweden. In 1652 they concluded a peace treaty with Maryland. In return for arms and safety on their southern flank, they ceded to Maryland large territories on both shores of the Chesapeake Bay.
During the Beaver Wars of the 1650s, for a period the Susquehannocks formed an alliance with the Province of Maryland, receiving rifles and other European weapons to fight off the Iroquois Confederacy. They were successful in doing so and a brief peace followed.
subtribe of the Conoy Native American tribe of Maryland.[4] At one time, they were one of the most populous and powerful Native polities of the Chesapeake Bay region. They spoke Algonquian Piscataway, a dialect of Nanticoke. Today three groups represent Piscataway descendants, the Piscataway Indian Nation and Tayac Territory,[5] the Piscataway Conoy Tribe of Maryland,[6] and the Cedarville Band of Piscataway Indians.[7] All three groups are located in Southern Maryland and have state recognition. None are federally-recognized.But, when the English began to colonize what is now Maryland in 1634, the Tayac Kittamaquund managed to turn the newcomers into allies. He had come to power that year after killing his brother Wannas, the former Tayac.[15] He granted the English a former Indian settlement, which they re-named St. Mary's City after their own monarch. The Tayac intended the new colonial outpost to serve as a buffer against the Iroquoian Susquehannock incursions from the north. Kittamaquund and his wife converted to Christianity in 1640 by their friendship with the Jesuit missionary, Father Andrew White, who also performed their marriage.[15] Their only daughter Mary Kittamaquund became a ward of colonist Margaret Brent, who became influential in St. Mary's City and saw to the girl's education, including learning English.
At a young age, Mary Kittamaquund married the much older English colonist Giles Brent, one of Margaret's brothers. After attempting to claim Piscataway territory, the couple next moved south across the Potomac to live at Aquia Creek in present-day Stafford County, Virginia. A recently approved historical highway marker in the area memorializes Mary Kittamaquund and notes her marriage to Brent.[16] They were said to have had three or four children together. Mary died young, at about age 22, as Brent married again in 1654.
Benefits to having the English as allies and buffers were short-lived. The Maryland Colony was initially too weak to pose a significant threat. Once the English began to develop a stronger colony, they turned against the Piscataway. By 1668 the western shore Algonquian were confined to two reservations: one on the Wicomico River; the other, on a portion of the Piscataway homeland. Refugees from dispossessed Algonquian nations merged with the Piscataway.
Colonial authorities forced the Piscataway to permit the Susquehannock, an Iroquoian-speaking people, to settle in their territory after having been defeated in 1675 by the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee), based in New York. The traditional enemies eventually came to open conflict in present-day Maryland. With the tribes at war, the Maryland Colony expelled the Susquehannock, after they had been attacked by the Piscataway. The Susquehannock suffered devastating defeat.
Making their way northward, the surviving Susquehannock joined forces with their former enemy, the Haudenosaunee, the five-nation Iroquois Confederacy. Together, the Iroquoian tribes returned repeatedly to attack the Piscataway. The English provided little help to their Piscataway allies. Rather than raise militia to aid them, the Maryland Colony continued to compete for control of Piscataway land.
Piscataway fortunes declined as the English Maryland colony grew and prospered. They were adversely affected by epidemics of infectious disease, and intertribal and colonial warfare. After the English tried to remove tribes from their homelands in 1680, the Piscataway fled from encroaching English settlers to Zekiah Swamp in Charles County, Maryland. There they were attacked by the Iroquois but peace was negotiated.[17]
In 1697, the Piscataway relocated across the Potomac and camped near what is now The Plains, Virginia in Fauguier County. Virginia settlers were alarmed and tried to persuade the Piscataway to return to Maryland, though they refused. Finally in 1699, the Piscataway moved north to what is now called Conoy Island in the Potomac near Point of Rocks, Maryland. They remained there until after 1722.[18]
Algonquian-speaking Native American group who lived along the north bank of the Potomac River near its confluence with the Chesapeake Bay in the 17th century. They were related to the Piscataway, the dominant nation north of the Potomac.
The settlers who arrived to found the English colony of Maryland purchased land for their first settlement from the Yaocomico. By the late-17th century, the tribe had disappeared from the historical record. Historians believe this was mostly due to epidemics of newly introduced infectious disease and to pressure from European settlers and other Native groups.According to historical tradition, the first settlers of the Maryland colony purchased the land for their settlement at St. Mary's City from the Yaocomico, who had a settlement in the area.[1] In 1634, Leonard Calvert, the first governor of the Maryland colony, met the Yaocomico along the Potomac below the island the Europeans had named St. Clement's Island.[2] Yaocomico is referred to in different sources as either the name of the natives living in the area or as the name of the leader of the village. It was a tribe.[1][2] The colonists had previously encountered and traded with Natives further upriver and so had some experience with them. As a result of the meeting, the Yaocomico traded approximately 30 acres (12 ha) of land for a variety of European-made metal tools and cloth.[2] Apparently the Yaocomico were willing to relocate from this village, and it was an ideal place for European settlement, as it had already been cleared.[3]
Father Andrew White, a Jesuit missionary priest and early Maryland settler, described the Yaocomico in detail. They dressed in deerskin decorated with natural objects such as shells, animal teeth, and feathers. Their bodies were painted in different colors. They drew red and blue lines on their faces.[2] The women wore tattoos on various parts of the body, and used manmade beads to adorn their bodies and clothing.[4] White claimed the Yaocomico were such skilled archers that they could throw a stick in the air and hit it with an arrow before it hit the ground. The Yaocomico had a loose structure of government and generally peaceful relations with other Algonquin groups.[2]
They cultivated the staple crops of the woodland natives, varieties of corn, beans, and squash. In addition, they gathered foods, fished and hunted in the rich coastal environment. The first European settlers described a number of Native celebrations throughout the year, often involving feasting and music. Their instruments were made from readily available materials and included rattles, drums, and flutes.[4]
European accounts claimed the Yaocomico were ready to sell the land to the Maryland colonists because they were being threatened by Iroquoian-speaking tribes from the north, specifically the Susquehannock and Seneca, the latter part of the Iroquois Confederacy.[1] Despite relations with the Piscataway and the larger Powhatan Confederacy to the south, the Yaocomico had apparently decided to abandon the area before the arrival of Europeans.[4] Both the Yaocomico and their neighbors had been raided repeatedly by groups of Susquehannock warriors based further up the Chesapeake, along what the settlers named the Susquehanna River. Such raids had pushed most Alonquian Natives out of the lands along the upper Chesapeake Bay, concentrating them in the south, where they encountered English settlers. The Yaocomico sought to use the new settlers as buffers against the Susquehannock.[2]
About half the Yaocomico left the site of St. Mary's City immediately. The other half left after a year, to allow them to maintain and harvest their crops. In the interim, the Yaocomico proved an invaluable resource to the settlers, teaching them how to survive in the new world. The Europeans, in return, wrote favorably of the Yaocomico. Jesuit priests arriving with the first colonists attempted to convert the Natives to Catholicism. They also continued to trade or share some European goods with the natives.[4]
The Maryland settlers continued to maintain good relations with the Yaocomico through the next few decades. They included provisions to protect them in treaties with neighboring tribes. But, the Yaocomico disappeared by the 1670s or 1680s. Historians now believe that Eurasian infectious diseases carried by the English were the most likely cause. The Natives had no immunity to such diseases, by then endemic among European populations. There was also continuing encroachment and competition by settlers or other native groups.[1][5]
Modern St. Mary's City includes a mock-up of the original Yaocomico village. The village shows Algonquian-style longhouses as they would have appeared to the first European settlers
Algonquian tribe speaking the Nanticoke language who historically lived on the Atlantic coast side of the Delmarva Peninsula (known during the colonial period as the Eastern Shores of Maryland and Virginia, and the Lower Counties of Pennsylvania). The aboriginal Assateague chiefdom was adapted to the maritime and forest resources of the Chincoteague Bay watershed and involved in the manufacture and trade of shell beads.In 1662, the colony of Maryland made a treaty with the Assateagues (and the Nanticokes) whereby each English settler given land in the territory of the Assateagues would give the Assateague chief (or "emperor", as he was called by the English) six matchcoats (garments made of a rough blanket or frieze, heavy rough cloth with uncut nap on one side), and one matchcoat for every runaway slave he had returned to the English. The treaty further stated that no murders were to be committed by either side, that no settler was to enter Assateague territory without a pass, and that the Assateagues were not to trade with the Dutch in Delaware, as long as the English could supply their necessities.
Of several other treaties signed between the provincial government and the Assateagues before the close of the 17th century, one ordered the Assateagues onto five reservations along the Pocomoke River, and was signed by Amonugus, as Emperor of the Assateagues. Apparently, based on signatures to a 1678 treaty, the Emperor of the Assateagues held a dominant position over the chiefs (or "kings", as subordinate to the "emperor") of the Chincoteague and Pocomoke tribes. Sessions of the Maryland General Assembly during this period record numerous complaints by the Assateague against colonists letting their cattle roam Assateague cornfields, breaking Assateague wild animal traps, cutting their timber, and usurping their lands. The Assateagues complained in 1686 that several settlers had even built homes in the Assateagues' town.
[edit]In 1722 a Peace Treaty was signed between the then-King of the Assateagues, Knosulm (alias M. Walker); the King of the Pocomokes, Wassounge (alias Daniel); and Charles Calvert, colonial Governor of Maryland. This treaty was to last to the "worlds end", and hostilities and damages from former acts would be "buried in perpetual oblivion", with further terms as follows:
Any Indian who killed a colonist was to be brought to the Governor as a prisoner.
Because the English claimed to be unable to distinguish one Indian from another, no Indian was to enter an English settlement with his face painted or carrying a weapon, or even to approach a settlement without laying down his weapons or calling out to identify himself.
The punishment for a settler killing an Indian that came un-painted, called out, and laid down his arms was death.
If an Indian and a settler met accidentally in the woods, the Indian had to immediately lay down his weapons: if he did not, he would considered an enemy.
The privilege of crabbing, fowling, hunting and fishing would be granted to each Indian individually.
Any Indian that killed or stole a hog, calf or other domestic animal, or stole any other goods would be punished as an Englishman.
Slaves and indentured servants who ran away from their masters and took shelter in Assateague territory were to be returned to the nearest English settlement.
The Indians were not to make any new peace with an enemy of the Governor, nor make war without the consent of the Governor.
If the Assateagues and Pocomokes killed any Indian subject to the Governor, it would be considered as great an offense as killing an Englishman.
Foreign Indians coming into the area were to be reported immediately to some person of note.