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Pathology Ch 3 - Respiratory System

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List 2 major functions of the respiratory system:
*Oxygenation of blood
*Removal of body's waste products in the form of carbon dioxide
The lower respiratory system consists of:
*Trachea
*Bronchi
*Bronchioles
The lower respiratory system is responsible for ________ from the upper respiratory system.
conducting air
The tracheobronchial tree is lined with a __________.
mucous membrane
The tracheobronchial tree contains __________ projections called cilia.
hairlike
______ prevent dust and foreign particles from reaching the lungs.
Cilia
When cilia permits particles to enter the respiratory system (due to damage), the particles _________ to produce a disease process.
proliferate
External respiration occurs in the ____
alveoli (lung parenchyma)
Oxygen attaches to the __________ molecules in the red blood cells to circulate to various tissue throughout the body; the is considered ________ respiration.
hemoglobin; internal
The _____ and ______ muscles are stimulated to contract, causing the lungs to ______.
diaphragm; intercostal; increase/expand (fill with air)
Pulmonary circulation provides the _____ with oxygenated blood.
body
The inner lining surrounding and attached to the lung wall is the _________.
visceral pleura
Irregular thickening of linear chest markings due to excessive viscous mucus is the radiographic appearance in _________.
cystic fibrosis.
consists of lipoproteins and provides the proper surface tension in the alveoli, allowing full external respirations
surfactant
____ and _____ neck images best demonstrate a rounded thickening of the epiglottic shadow in the disorder called Epiglottitis.
soft tissue (AP) and lateral
characterized by the cause and location of the disease process in the lung
Pneumonia
A lung abscess appears as a _______ density characteristically having a ______________ periphery.
spherical; hazy, poorly defined
A bacterium that is rod-shaped with a waxy coat allowing it to live outside the body for an extended time
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Pulmonary infiltration(s), most commonly in the periphery of the parenchyma, that may resemble pneumonia are the radiographic appearance of __________.
Coccidioidomycosis
Respiratory syncytial virus is responsible for the increased rate of _________ infections because of the ability of the virus to persist on surfaces for many hours.
nosocomial
Emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma are examples of:
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
In ________, the lung reacts to occupational exposure of silica, which results in extensive fibrosis.
Silicosis
____________ causes peripheral atelectasis and pneumonitis due to bronchial obstruction.
Bronchial adenoma
An abnormal vascular communication between the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein is a pulmonary _________ _________.
arteriovenous fistula
abnormal communication between the pulmonary arteries and veins
pulmonary arteriovenous fistula
air-bronchogram is the radiographic appearance due to immature lung development
hyaline membrane disease
arises from thrombi in the deep venous system
pulmonary emboli
condition of a collapsed lung
atelectasis
consolidation of the lung parenchyma sometimes causing an air-bronchogram
pneumonia
diseases caused by prolonged occupational exposure to irritating particulates causing interstitial inflammation
pneumoconiosis
fungal infection of the lung
pulmonary mycosis
hereditary disease noted for secreting excessive viscous mucus by all endocrine glands
cystic fibrosis
most common type of lung cancer typically arising in the major bronchi
squamous carcinoma
necrotic area of pulmonary parenchyma containing purulent material
lung abscess
neoplastic growth that is the result of an inflammatory process
benign granuloma
permanent irreversible obstructive and destructive changes in the acini
emphysema
primary carcinoma originating in the mucosa of the bronchial tree
bronchogenic carcinoma
pus in the pleural cavity
empyema
several conditions in which chronic obstruction of the airways leads to ineffective external respiration
COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
thin fibers embed in the lung, causing major fibrosis, and may result in mesothelioma
asbestosis
this disease has four primary radiographic appearances: Infiltrates, Hilar enlargement, Ghon lesions, and Pleural effusion
Tuberculosis
viral inflammatory obstruction of the subglottic area of the trachea
croup
virus causing necrosis of the respiratory epithelium in the lower respiratory system
Respiratory syncytial virus
widespread narrowing of airways caused by an increased response of the tracheobronchial tree to various allergens
asthma
breathing that supplies oxygen-rich air to the alveoli
inspiration
carbon dioxide regulates the respiration center in this part of the brain
medulla
cluster of alveoli
acinus
consists of nasopharynx, oropharynx and larynx
upper respiratory system
extremely thin-walled sacs surrounded by blood capillaries
parenchyma
fluid in the pleural space
pleural effusion
membrane attached to the inner chest wall (thoracic cavity)
parietal pleura
oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange due to cellular metabolism
internal respiration
oxygenates blood and removes body waste such as carbon dioxide
lower respiratory system
prevents dust and foreign particles from reaching the lungs
cilia
provides the lung tissue with oxygen and nourishment
bronchial circulation
respiratory muscles relaxing causes the lungs to expel air
expiration
List parts of Upper Respiratory System:
*Larynx
*Oropharynx
*Nasal Pharynx
*Pharynx
List the parts of the Lower respiratory system:
*Trachea
*Lungs
*Bronchi
*Bronchioles
*Alveoli
lung is surrounded by this double-walled membrane
pleura
What is it called when excess fluid collects between the two layers of the pleura?
pleural effusion
Diagnostic tests for the respiratory system include:
*X-ray
*Bronchoscopy
*Tissue biopsy
*Blood test
*Pulmonary function test
*Sputum cultures
List some imaging considerations for chest x-ray:
*Technical factors (110-120kvp)
*Artifacts
*Shield
*Move scapulas out of way
*Breathing technique
*10 posterior ribs
*Symmetrical clavicles
*History
*Markers
Where should an Endotracheal tube be placed?
5 to 7 cm ABOVE the carina
What is the proper placement for the tip of a central venous pressure line?
in the distal superior vena cava just below the right atrium
the lack of the respiratory system to exchange gases
respiratory failure
hereditary disease that is due to an abnormal gene in chromosome #7
Cystic fibrosis
List 4 treatments for Cystic fibrosis:
*Antimicrobial drugs
*Bronchodilators
*Respiratory physical therapy
*DNase (drug)
What is the radiographic appearance of Hyaline membrane disease?
finely granular appearance, "ground glass" and atelectasis
an inflammation (irritation) without infection
Pneumonitis
an inflammation with infection
Pneumonia
type of pneumonia that affects mostly the alveoli
Interstitial pneumonia
Which side is mostly affected in Aspiration Pneumonia? Why?
the right side, because the bifurcation of the lungs is straighter and wider on the right side
caused by aspiration of esophageal or gastric contents
Aspiration Pneumonia
List 3 ways to contact Anthrax:
*Cutaneous
*Inhalation
*Injestion
granular tissue growth
granulomas
What does PPD stand for?
Purified Protein Derivative
How does Tuberculosis spread?
by droplets in the air
Why is the lordotic projection useful in evaluation of Tuberculosis?
to get the clavicles out of the way in order to check for lesions that are most common in the apical region
Name 2 tests for Tuberculosis:
*MANTOUX test
*PPD test
Name 2 types of Pulmonary Mycosis:
*Histoplasmosis
*Coccidiodomycosis
What is another name for Histoplasmosis?
Darling's Disease
What percentage of infants are affected by RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus)?
Approx. 50%