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37 terms

PSYCH 100B Midterm 1 Chapter 6 Terms

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true experiment
an experiment in which the researcher has complete control over the manipulation of the IV.
experimental control
holding constant as many extraneous variables as possible
random assignment
a process used to produce random, and hopefully equivalent, groups by ensuring that any extraneous influence is as likely to affect one group as it is the other and thereby hold it constant.
quasi experiment
when the experimenter cannot use random assignment to make groups equivalent because they select levels of the IV, not manipulate it. This happens when the IV's not manipulable, like race, gender or age.
single-factor experiment
an experiment with one IV.
multifactorial designs
an experiment with more than one IV.
condition
the particular way in which participants are treated.
experimental group/treatment group
group that is given the level of IV of interest
control group
provides a means to determine changes that might occur naturally in the absence of treatment
posttest
a measure of the outcome in both groups after the experimental group has received treatment. All true experiments have this.
pretest
a measure of the DV before experimental intervention. All true experiments have this.
between-subjects design
independent groups receive different levels of the IV
within-subjects design
all research participants receiver all levels of the IV
randomized comparative change design/ pretest-post-test control group design
a randomized experimental design with a pretest and posttest.
matching
a procedure used to equate groups, but is a poor substitute for randomization. Pair people in control and treatment group on basis of similarity in gender, age, etc. Because unmatched characteristics can skew results and there are only so many characteristics you can match in two individuals, if matching is used instead of random assignment it becomes quasi-experimental; not a true experiment.
matched-pair design
matching combined with random assignment. Used in between-subject studies, create pairs of participants matched on a variable that's strongly related to the DV. Each pair is split up and assigned to either control or treatment group.
counterbalancing
technique to control for order of treatments. More effective than randomization because ensures e/ treatment/level of IV occurs in all combinations.
internal validity
the extent to which the systematic manipulation of one or more IV's produces the predicted/hypothesized effect on the DV.
design sensitivity
the extent to which a researcher has constructed the best possible study to evaluate the topic under investigation.
null result
occurs when an IV fails to produce any effect on the DV.
demand characteristics
include subject roles/biases, experimenter effects. Threat to internal validity.
double-blind procedure
both experimenter and participant are deliberately kept blind to the conditions of study.
statistical control
to quantify the effects of variables that cannot be randomized but are known to be strongly related to the DV.
ANOVA
statistical technique which allows the researcher to test whether a difference on the dependent measure exists, even after controlling or co-varying.
statistical significance
the likelihood that the observed effect revealed by data analysis could be due to chance.
effect size
the strength of the relationship of the IV on the DV.
null hypothesis
the hypothesis of no difference or no relationship which the researcher tries to reject, nullify or disprove.
research hypothesis/alternative hypothesis
predicts a certain relationship typically on the basis of theory.
Type 1 error
when the null hypothesis is wrongly rejected. Type 1 error= stat. significance/alpha.
Type 2 error
when the null hypothesis is wrongly accepted. Type 2 error= beta/ power. Usually occurs when sample size is small and relationship between IV and DV is not revealed.
external validity
the extent to which results of a particular study that involves a sample of subjects will generalize to the wider population.
random sampling
tool for maximizing generalizability.
ecological validity
form of external validity concerned with the real-life impact of results generated from studies.
spurious relationship
when a correlation between two variables might be caused by something other than an effect of the presumed IV on the DV.
ecological fallacy
when you make conclusions about an individual based only on analyses of group data.
reductionist fallacy
when you make conclusions about a group based only on analyses of individual data.
experimental error
any influence on the DV that isn't solely to the changes in the IV.