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Quiz 2

Terms in this set (120)

At birth, the brain contains the vast majority of all the cells it will ever have - more than 10 billion! Also, baby brains at birth support elementary sensory and motor functions. Babies respond to distinct sounds, for example, and have an array of reflexes at birth such as grasping and rooting.
• According to Piaget, the brain goes through four major developments by the time it reaches adulthood. First, the sensorimotor stage (0-2), in which the baby spends time coordinating their sensory perceptions and simple motor behaviors, the baby comes to recognize the existence of a world outside themselves and begins to interact with it in deliberate ways. Second, the preoperational stage (2-6), when the child can represent reality with symbols, but still often fail to distinguish their point of view from that of others, are often confused about causal relations, and become easily captured by surface appearances. Third, the concrete operational stage (6-12), in which the child is able to mentally combine, separate, order, and transform objects and actions. Fourth, the formal operational stage (12-19), in which the child acquires the ability to think systematically about all logical relations within a problem. During this stage, adolescents display keen interest in abstract ideas and in the process of thinking itself.
• Experience-dependent brain processes: Development of neural connections that is initiated in response to experience.
• Experience-expectant brain processes: Development of neural connections under genetic controls that occurs in any normal environment.
For this question look at Paigets substages in the Sensorimotor stage on page 145. Infants accidentally develop coordination when certain reflexes spur new behavior. For example piaget uses the example that Infants can suck their thumbs the first day of life, however their reflexes accidentally spur the new behavior or thumb sucking because the thumb touches the mouth. After there is a reflex that spurs thumb sucking the infant might like doing that action and continue to thumb suck on purpose.
Reflexes (0-1 month):
During this substage, the child understands the environment purely through inborn reflexes such as sucking and looking.
Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months):
This substage involves coordinating sensation and new schemas. For example, a child may such his or her thumb by accident and then later intentionally repeat the action. These actions are repeated because the infant finds them pleasurable.
Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months):
During this substage, the child becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment. For example, a child will purposefully pick up a toy in order to put it in his or her mouth.
Coordination of Reactions (8-12 months):
During this substage, the child starts to show clearly intentional actions. The child may also combine schemas in order to achieve a desired effect. Children begin exploring the environment around them and will often imitate the observed behavior of others. The understanding of objects also begins during this time and children begin to recognize certain objects as having specific qualities. For example, a child might realize that a rattle will make a sound when shaken.
Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months):
Children begin a period of trial-and-error experimentation during the fifth substage. For example, a child may try out different sounds or actions as a way of getting attention from a caregiver.
Early Representational Thought (18-24 months):
Children begin to develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world in the final sensorimotor substage. During this time, children begin to move towards understanding the world through mental operations rather than purely through actions.
"During first year babies triple in weight and grow approximately 10 inches in the US. 1-year-old babies weight 20-22 lbs and stand 28-30 inches.
Babies' head usually will account for 20 percent of body length by one year of age. By one year of age, the changes in body proportions have led to a lower center of gravity, making it easier for the child to balance on two legs and begin to walk. As their bodies stretch out, most will lose the potbellied look so characteristics of younger infants: They begin to look more like children than infants.
When newborns arrive they usually have soft bones than will ossify over time. The wrists and hands are the first bones to harden; this makes it easier for babies to reach out for objects. Pg 162-164

One of the most dramatic developments for infants between 3-24 months is the enormous increase in infants ability of explore their environments by grasping and manipulating objects.
Look at chart on pg. 169 to see developments of motor skills. Around 3 months babies begin to gain voluntary movements at 5 months they can gauge when an object is beyond their reach at 9 months babies can guide their reaching and grasping movements. Between 7-12 months fine motor movements of the hands and fingers become better coordinated. By 10-12 months babies can do simple things with a spoon, such as banging it on a table. By one infants can only roll a ball or fling is awkwardly. 8-9 months infants can crawl on flat surfaces. Many babies take first steps by first birthday. (Pgs 168-174)
· Social referencing

o The baby looks from mysterious object to caretaker to figure out how they should react. Experiment with electronic barking dog, 7 months, the baby is reliant, looking at the adult for guidance even when ignored. At 10 months, stopped checking with the adult unless the adult looked at them when the dog barked. Goes from constant social referencing to selective social referencing since they learn they can only get feedback when the adult is paying attention to them. Becomes stronger overtime.
· Gaze-following and pointing

o At 5-months, baby cannot follow caretakers gaze and is more likely to stare at the caretaker's finger than what the caretaker points at. A month or two later, they will follow the gaze and direction the caretaker points. Becomes stronger overtime. Baby's ability to point down not develop in until a few months after they are a year old.
· First words

o As the child learns a word, such as their name (4 months for the name, 6 months for familiar words such as mommy or daddy), using the name as anchoring in sentences helps them learn new words. Name: Amy. "Here's your cup" vs. "Here's you cup, Amy." Latter more likely helps them. Called perceptual scaffolding. At 9 months of age, a girl would bring her favorite doll when told to "bring a dolly" but only saw "doll" as referring to her own, not as dolls in general - experiment. Ability to produce language is months behind the ability to understand.

§ Stems from Cooing and gurgling.

· 10-12 weeks of age begin making this noise. Soon thereafter, normal hearing babies imitate cooing sounds and respond with gurgles and coos voices of others. When imitated, they will respond with more coos, thereby engaging in "conversation."

§ Babbling

· Form of vocalization that combines a consonant and vowel sound, such as "dadadada" or "babababa" begins around 7 months. Controlled by left hemisphere of brain before language recognition has begun. Begins as vocal play with sounds never heard before in the native language in their area, which narrows down at 9 months to sounds in the native language they form. Tend to babble a lot on their own,, so likely they are doing something similar to singing to themselves with familiar sounds of their language.

· Jargoning

o Toward the end of the first year, babies begin to babble with the intonation and stress of actual utterances in the language they will eventually speak - these vocalizations are jargoning. At about the same time, babies start to repeat particular short utterances in particular situations, as if the utterances have some meaning.

· Recognition of phrases

o Occurs at about 12 months. They tend to only be recognizable in certain contexts though. i.e. - "Give me a hug!" "Stop it!" "Let's go bye-bye." Deaf children, if they have residual hearing can babble, and those who are deaf and learning to sign will babble with their hands, which will in turn become sign language.
The text says there are 2 keys...(Sections are broken up as the biological key and the environmental key) Each key seems to be broken down into 2 components though... so yeah...
· The human biological biological structures and systems that support language (biological key)

o First part of this is to inquire about the capacities and limitations of other species in producing and comprehending language. If the language abilities of other species depart significantly from those of our own species, then evolutionary forces must have produced the unique human biological structures and processes that make language possible.

§ Experiments done with chimpanzees treated as normal human babies showed they could understand dozens of spoken words and languages, but could never speak them. They were able to learn some signs to refer to and request certain things, but their ability to acquire language is still disputed. Closest sign of them acquiring language is if they're taught to use a lexical keyboard with symbols to make requests, but cannot make any human words by himself. With the keyboard, they make simple requests and can respond to simple requests. Words are usually two-linked words to describe their actions. The combintations of visual symbols and gestures in bonobos and chimpanzees show they can produce language at a 2-year-old level. Children do not need explicit instruction, but these primates do.

§ With a difference shown, scientists have known that the left side of the brain plays a dominant role in language ability, which was discovered in the nineteenth century by two physicians trying to solve a speech disorder called aphasia. 1861, French surgeon Paul Broca treated a man who was unable to speak. The patient died and Broca examined his brain and found damage on the left frontal lobe, which is now called Broca's area. Patient with damage to this area suffer from Broca's aphasia, causing the absence or disruption of speech. They need to make a great deal of effort for a couple simple words and have great difficulty with complex sentences. A few years later, Carl Wernicke, German physician, discovered damage to the slight rear of the Broca's area results in inability to comprehend language. This area is the Wernicke's area and damage to it does not affect the ability to produce language but have a hard time making sense of it. This tends to lead to a mix up of words in their sentences, which make it hard to understand what they are actually trying to say (so replace one word with another or nonsense word). To go find out if the brain was programmed to do certain things, they used advanced neuroimaging techniques. They found the complexity of the sequence led to different parts of the brain to activate, particularly Broca's area (apparently has evolved recently) for more complex ones. Simpler ones activated evolutionarily older parts in the brain, like ones we share with primates. Research shows that it is possible for children to develop normally with damage to these areas as long as it happens early in life. Strokes cutting off blood circulation to one half of the brain suffered just before, during, or after birth developed language, though at a lower range of performance. Adults with damage here would be quite language impaired. The babies brain seems to adapt from the left, since the right side reacts a little more and is controlled by the left side, meaning the left side starts the language, and the fact that babies with strokes can still adapt to it shows the brain is not fixed at birth.

o The second, related approach is to try to discover which structures and processes of the human brain support language development and what their special contributions are.

§ Language deprived environments, such as deaf kids whose parents refuse to learn sign language to communicate, since they believe their kids should and can learn to read lips and vocalize sounds. Kids in this situation seem to spontaneously begin to gesture in "home sign," a kind of communication through pantomime. Goldin-Meadow and colleagues discovered characteristic features of this, starting with pointing, and then gesture in one sign at a time, which is the same as single word utterances in kids who aren't deaf. Patterns of two or more signs appear around 2, which is when hearing kids would utter multiword sentences. The deaf kids were also using more complex sentence structures than the primates. Same result was found in Taiwan. Their formation of growing sentence structure comes to an end at this point, so they others with advanced language skills to learn from. Basically, babies learn language on their own for the first two years of life, but need guidance at that point to advance toward mastering the language.

· Variations in language environments are all around the world. Americans for example talk to babies sometimes even before birth, while Mayans and Mexicans talk very little to babies. Some cultures believe it is important to actively teach their child to talk. Even in societies where adults do not engage in deliberate language-teaching strategies, many adults are likely to use a special kind of speaking to infants, called infant-directed speech, motherese, or baby-talk. It is characterized by a high-pitched voice with exaggerated shifts in intonation, a simplified vocabulary, and an emphasis on the boundaries between meaningful parts of an utterance. All of which help to highlight what the adult wants to communicate. Erik Thiessan and his colleagues did an experiment which showed that baby-talk helped children make more sense of a string of nonsense words than did the words in a more monotone fashion. Catherine Snow showed simplified statements with meanings highlighted isolates constituent phrases at the same time that it models the whole grammatical structure. Parents simplify what they say and expand upon and reformulate what children say to be grammatically correct - widespread. No positive conclusions to expanding a child's language based on feedback yet. Affected by amount of language they hear. The more they hear, the greater the rate of vocabulary acquired. No one method of structuring children's language experience is essential and differences in everyday, intuitive language practices with children make little difference in the rate they acquire language.