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Left side of heart

controls the flow of blood to all tissues and cells in the body
where oxygen and nutrients are delivered and metabolic wastes are taken away
oxygenated blood (yellow)

Right side of heart

sends blood to the lungs, where oxygen stored in red blood cells is replenished and carbon dioxide, a metabolic waste, is released
de-oxygenated blood (blue)

Right and left atrium

top chambers of the heart


Bottom chambers of the heart, left is bigger because it goes to the entire body

Apex of the heart

Formed by the inferior tip of the left ventricle


Paw print looking by atrium
Extend off the main body of each atrium, medial appendage

What does the term "auricle" mean?

external ear

Atrioventricular (coronary) groove

groove between atria and ventricles
provide place for veins and arteries to fit

Anterior interventricular groove

between ventricles
travels toward the apex along the anterior surface of the heart

Ascending aorta

comes out of left ventricle
carries oxygenated blood
gives rise to aortic arch
first segment of aorta

Aortic arch

where the ascending aorta arches
gives off three branches: brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery
cat only has two arteries branching off

Brachiocephalic artery

first right branch off aortic arch, goes to arm and head

Left common carotid artery

Middle branch off aortic arch
goes straight to the head

Left subclavian artery

last branch off aortic arch
goes to arm and clavicle

Pulmonary arteries

come off of pulmonary trunk

Pulmonary veins

four, two on each side
enter left atrium

Superior and inferior vena cava

empty into right atrium

What structure forms a complete circle around the heart and forms a border between the atria and ventricles?

atrioventricular sulcus

Posterior interventricular groove

on back side where arteries and veins sit
descends toward the apex from the coronary sulcus and forms a border between the atria and ventricles

How many pulmonary veins are there?
How many pulmonary arteries?


Interatrial septum

separates right and left atrium

Fossa ovalis

white spot in right atrium, connective tissue, blocks off hole

What is the function of the septum?

prevents mixing of blood, barrier

What is the function of the fossa ovalis?
When this structure does not close properly, what happens?

blocks off foramen oval
mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

Interventricular septum
A malformation in this structure can lead to?

separates ventricles
change in blood pressure


texture in ventricles

Cornus arteriosus

region where pulmonary trunk extends out of the heart

atrioventricular valves

take blood from the atrium to the ventricles
open and close as a result of pressure differences between the atria and ventricles during the pumping action of the heart

tricuspid valve

right valve, three cusps

bicuspid valve

(mitral valve)
left valve, has two cusps

semilunar valves

send blood from ventricles out of heart

pulmonary semilunar valve

situated at the junction of the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

Aortic semilunar valve

located at the junction of the left ventricle and the aorta

Chordae tendinae

anchors valves in ventricles to papillary muscles
heart strings

What is another name for the bicuspid valve

mitral valve

Layers of heart wall

endocardium, myocardium, epicardium, pericardium


thin, serous membrane (lubricated)
made of connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium


thickest layer
made of cardiac muscle fibers
separated by connective tissue containing capillaries and nerves


thin serous membrane with connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium
aka visceral pericardium


encloses entire heart

Where is the heart wall the thickest? why?

Left ventricle, because it pumps to the whole body


inflammation caused by a bacterial infection of the endocardium
symptoms: heart failure, stroke, heart attack

Right coronary arteries

travels to the right along the coronary sulcus
Curves around the right side and continues onto the posterior surface

Left coronary arteries

travels to left side, along coronary sulcus and posterior to the pulmonary trunk
becomes circumflex artery and anterior interventricular artery

Anterior interventricular artery

comes form left coronary artery, between ventricles

Circumflex artery

travels along the coronary sulcus
goes around the heart

Marginal artery

#63, along side of the heart

Posterior interventricular artery

descends toward the apex along the posterior interventricular sulcus

Coronary sinus

Big vein in back of heart
Smaller circle in right atrium draining deoxygenated blood, drains in right atrium
Large dilated sac that runs along the coronary sulcus and empties into the right atrium
It drains most of the venous blood from the heart wall

Great cardiac vein

In anterior ventricular sulcus
Deoxygenated blood

Middle cardiac vein

By posterior interventricular sulcus
Drains into coronary sinus as it approached the base of the heart

Small cardiac vein

by marginal artery
wraps around right side of the heart
drains into the coronary sinus

Anterior cardiac vein

directly drains to right atrium

What is the functional difference between pulmonary arteries and bronchial arteries?

Bronchial arteries are found in the lungs
Pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood, bronchial arteries carry oxygenated blood

Explain why all the major arteries in the systemic circulation have a deep position in the body.

They contain a lot of blood and need to be kept from being punctured

Which side of the heart regulates the pulmonary circulation?


Where does the systemic circulation go?

The whole body

Which side regulates the systemic circulation?


Trace a drop of blood starting at the right atrium

Superior and inferior vena cava--right atrium--tricuspid valves--right ventricle--pulmonary semilunar valve--pulmonary trunk--right and left pulmonary arteries--lungs--O2 pulmonary veins--left atrium--bicuspid valve (mitral valve)--left ventricle--aortic semilunar valve--ascending aorta--body

Ligamentum arteriosum

where the hole is closed

Pectinate muscles

muscle in atrium

Tunica intima

innermost layer of blood vessel wall, contains simple squamous epithelium


Simple squamous epithelium


opening of any capillary, vein or artery that blood flows through

Tunica media

middle layer, thickest
made of smooth muscle and elastic

Tunica externa

outermost layer, connective tissue layer with numerous elastic and collagen fibers

Elastic arteries

undergo high blood pressure
Ex: aorta and pulmonary trunk

Muscular arteries

lower blood pressure
Ex: brachiocephalic artery


delivers blood to capillary beds

Continuous capillaries

least permeable

Fenestrated capillaries

more permeable
found in endocrine glands


most permeable
a lot of pores

Explain varicose veins. Why does a pregnant women or an individual with an abdominal tumor have a greater risk of developing varicose veins?

Valves preventing back flow do not work properly, creating blood pooling. Increased mass and constricted blood flow.


Narrowing of blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, increases TPR


Widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of muscular wall of the vessels, works to decrease TPR

Atria vs Ventricles

Atria is superior and recieves blood while the ventricles are inferior and discharges blood

The small cardiac vein rests in what sulcus on the heart?

atrioventricular sulcus

Pulmonary trunk

collects deoxygenated blood

Pulmonary veins

returns blood to the heart

Right and left pulmonary artery

deliver blood to the lungs where gas exchange occurs

Which heart chamber pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk

Right ventricle

Which heart chamber receives blood from the pulmonary veins?

Left atrium


sinoatrial node, located in the right atrium

left and right coronary arteries

branch off ascending aorta near origin
supply blood to the heart wall

Thoracic aorta

Where aortic arch descends into thoracic cavity

Abdominal aorta

where descending aorta travels through abdominal cavity

Right and left iliac arteries

supply blood to gluteal muscles, organs in pelvic cavity, and hindlimb

Celiac artery

supplies blood to stomach, spleen, and first segment of small intestine

Phrenic arteries

supply the diaphragm, originate from descending aorta in thorax

Renal arteries

supply the kidneys

Gonadal arteries

supply the scrotum and testes, ovaries, and uterus

Superior mesentric artery

first part of large intestine, two last parts of small intestine

Inferior mesentric artery

supply blood to the end part of large intestine

The aorta runs to the left of what structure

pulmonary vein

Which heart chamber pumps blood into the aorta

Left ventricle

External and internal carotid

main blood supply to brain

Common carotid

travel cranially and supply blood to structures in neck and head

Superficial temporal artery

supplies most of the scalp and salivary gland

Maxillary artery

supplies upper and lower jaws, muscles of mastication, teeth, nasal cavity, and temporal and parietal bones

Facial artery

Supplies the skin and muscles of face

Lingual artery

supplies tongue, soft palate, epiglottis,lingual tonsils, sublingual salivary gland

occipital artery

branches off common carotid, supplies dorsal neck muscles and occipital of skull

Brachial artery

comes from axillary artery

Ulnar artery

terminal branch of brachial artery

Radial artery

terminal branch of brachial artery

Femoral artery

comes from external iliac artery

Tibial arteries

Supply blood to lower hindleg and foot

What is the functional difference between pulmonary arteries and bronchial arteries?

Pulmonary takes deoxygenated blood to the lungs
Bronchial takes oxygenated blood from the lungs

Superior and inferior vena cava

empties into right atrium, receives blood from head, neck upper extremities, and thorax
formed by left and right brachiocephalic veins

subclavian vein

merges with internal jugular vein to form brachiocephalic vein, drains blood from the brain

axillary vein

travels through axilla toward base of neck
becomes subclavian vein

Median cubital vein

connects basilic and cephalic vein

Basilic vein


cephalic vein


Suprarenal vein

drain blood from adrenal gland

Hepatic vein

drains blood from the liver

Hepatic portal system

allows body to reabsorb toxins and send out of body

gastric veins

drain blood from stomach,empty into hepatic portal vein

great saphenous vein

longest vein in body
main superficial vein in lower body

azygous vein

drains areas of thoracic, empties into superior vena cava

Intravenous feeding

the introduction of fluids and electrolytes over a long period of time

Which vein is commonly used in graft for open heart bypass?

great saphenous vein


branches of two or more arteries with different origins to form natural communications


accumulation of fatty deposits in the tunica intima of arteries, damage and calcification of tunica media, leads to heart disease and stroke

When you flex your arm for an extended period of time it "falls asleep" blocking what major artery in your arm?

Brachial artery

What is collateral circulation and why is it clinically significant?

serves as alternate routes of blood supply, grow and enlarge in someone with heart disease or other blood vessel disease and form a detour around blockage

Venae comitantes

groups of veins arranged around a common artery


premature death of cells in living tissue, caused by infection
tissue death

What vein is often used to extract blood for a blood sample?

median cubital vein

Lub sound

represents the closure of the atrioventricular valves (bi and tricuspid valves), during ventricular systole, it is a long, loud sound

dup sound

represents the closure of the semilunar valves during ventricular diastole
it is a short, sharp sound

Nodal cells

non-contractile cardiac fibers
specialized to generate and propagate action potentials or depolarization waves within the heart muscles





sinus rhythm

steady pace at which it generates and sends depolarization waves to the atria and the AV node

AV node

located in the right atrium, close to the atrioventicular opening; on its own, it is capable of generating action potentials only at a rate of about 55 times per minute so it follows the sinus rhythm of SA

Atrioventricular bundle

bundle of His
a short narrow bundle of conduction fibers from AV node, located in the interatrial septum

Bundle branches

two branches from the AV node, located in the interatrial septum

Purkinje fibers

microscopic fibers from the bundle branch, that take the depolarization waves to the myocardial fibers

heart murmur

incomplete closure of the AV valves can cause regurgitation or backflow of blood into the atria

blood pressure is measured in units called

millimeters of mercury

Why is the brachial artery used to measure arterial blood pressure?

it is at the same level of the heart, so the effects of gravity are negligible

If a person's blood pressure is 140/90, what do the two numbers mean?

systolic pressure is 140 mm Hg and diastolic pressure 90 mm Hg

Of the two blood pressure readings, which is considered to be more critical and why?

diastolic pressure, because it suggests that damage, due to arteriosclerosis, has occurred to the arterial walls

What condition is represented by this blood pressure measurement?

cardiovascular disease

Korotkoff's sounds

thumping sounds, from turbulent blood flow when artery is opened

blood pressure


pulse pressure

systolic pressure-diastolic pressure

Mean arterial pressure

diastolic pressure+1/3 pulse pressure

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