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Anatomy Lab Test 1

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Left side of heart
controls the flow of blood to all tissues and cells in the body
where oxygen and nutrients are delivered and metabolic wastes are taken away
oxygenated blood (yellow)
Right side of heart
sends blood to the lungs, where oxygen stored in red blood cells is replenished and carbon dioxide, a metabolic waste, is released
de-oxygenated blood (blue)
Right and left atrium
top chambers of the heart
Ventricles
Bottom chambers of the heart, left is bigger because it goes to the entire body
Apex of the heart
Formed by the inferior tip of the left ventricle
Auricles
Paw print looking by atrium
Extend off the main body of each atrium, medial appendage
What does the term "auricle" mean?
external ear
Atrioventricular (coronary) groove
(sulcus)
groove between atria and ventricles
provide place for veins and arteries to fit
Anterior interventricular groove
between ventricles
travels toward the apex along the anterior surface of the heart
Ascending aorta
comes out of left ventricle
carries oxygenated blood
gives rise to aortic arch
first segment of aorta
Aortic arch
where the ascending aorta arches
gives off three branches: brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery
cat only has two arteries branching off
Brachiocephalic artery
first right branch off aortic arch, goes to arm and head
largest
Left common carotid artery
Middle branch off aortic arch
goes straight to the head
Left subclavian artery
last branch off aortic arch
goes to arm and clavicle
Pulmonary arteries
come off of pulmonary trunk
Pulmonary veins
four, two on each side
enter left atrium
Superior and inferior vena cava
empty into right atrium
What structure forms a complete circle around the heart and forms a border between the atria and ventricles?
atrioventricular sulcus
Posterior interventricular groove
on back side where arteries and veins sit
descends toward the apex from the coronary sulcus and forms a border between the atria and ventricles
How many pulmonary veins are there?
How many pulmonary arteries?
4
2
Interatrial septum
separates right and left atrium
Fossa ovalis
white spot in right atrium, connective tissue, blocks off hole
What is the function of the septum?
prevents mixing of blood, barrier
What is the function of the fossa ovalis?
When this structure does not close properly, what happens?
blocks off foramen oval
mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
Interventricular septum
A malformation in this structure can lead to?
separates ventricles
change in blood pressure
Trabeculae
texture in ventricles
Cornus arteriosus
region where pulmonary trunk extends out of the heart
atrioventricular valves
take blood from the atrium to the ventricles
open and close as a result of pressure differences between the atria and ventricles during the pumping action of the heart
tricuspid valve
right valve, three cusps
bicuspid valve
(mitral valve)
left valve, has two cusps
semilunar valves
send blood from ventricles out of heart
pulmonary semilunar valve
situated at the junction of the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
Aortic semilunar valve
located at the junction of the left ventricle and the aorta
Chordae tendinae
anchors valves in ventricles to papillary muscles
heart strings
What is another name for the bicuspid valve
mitral valve
Layers of heart wall
endocardium, myocardium, epicardium, pericardium
Endocardium
thin, serous membrane (lubricated)
made of connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium
Myocardium
thickest layer
made of cardiac muscle fibers
separated by connective tissue containing capillaries and nerves
Epicardium
thin serous membrane with connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium
outermost
aka visceral pericardium
pericardium
encloses entire heart
fibrous
Where is the heart wall the thickest? why?
Left ventricle, because it pumps to the whole body
Endocarditus
inflammation caused by a bacterial infection of the endocardium
symptoms: heart failure, stroke, heart attack
Right coronary arteries
travels to the right along the coronary sulcus
Curves around the right side and continues onto the posterior surface
Left coronary arteries
travels to left side, along coronary sulcus and posterior to the pulmonary trunk
becomes circumflex artery and anterior interventricular artery
Anterior interventricular artery
comes form left coronary artery, between ventricles
Circumflex artery
travels along the coronary sulcus
goes around the heart
Marginal artery
#63, along side of the heart
Posterior interventricular artery
descends toward the apex along the posterior interventricular sulcus
Coronary sinus
Big vein in back of heart
Smaller circle in right atrium draining deoxygenated blood, drains in right atrium
Large dilated sac that runs along the coronary sulcus and empties into the right atrium
It drains most of the venous blood from the heart wall
Great cardiac vein
In anterior ventricular sulcus
Deoxygenated blood
Middle cardiac vein
By posterior interventricular sulcus
Deoxygenated
Drains into coronary sinus as it approached the base of the heart
Small cardiac vein
by marginal artery
wraps around right side of the heart
drains into the coronary sinus
Anterior cardiac vein
directly drains to right atrium
What is the functional difference between pulmonary arteries and bronchial arteries?
Bronchial arteries are found in the lungs
Pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood, bronchial arteries carry oxygenated blood
Explain why all the major arteries in the systemic circulation have a deep position in the body.
They contain a lot of blood and need to be kept from being punctured
Which side of the heart regulates the pulmonary circulation?
Right
Where does the systemic circulation go?
The whole body
Which side regulates the systemic circulation?
Left
Trace a drop of blood starting at the right atrium
Superior and inferior vena cava--right atrium--tricuspid valves--right ventricle--pulmonary semilunar valve--pulmonary trunk--right and left pulmonary arteries--lungs--O2 pulmonary veins--left atrium--bicuspid valve (mitral valve)--left ventricle--aortic semilunar valve--ascending aorta--body
Ligamentum arteriosum
where the hole is closed
Pectinate muscles
muscle in atrium
Tunica intima
innermost layer of blood vessel wall, contains simple squamous epithelium
Endothelium
Simple squamous epithelium
Lumen
opening of any capillary, vein or artery that blood flows through
Tunica media
middle layer, thickest
made of smooth muscle and elastic
Tunica externa
outermost layer, connective tissue layer with numerous elastic and collagen fibers
Elastic arteries
undergo high blood pressure
Ex: aorta and pulmonary trunk
Muscular arteries
lower blood pressure
Ex: brachiocephalic artery
Arterioles
delivers blood to capillary beds
Continuous capillaries
least permeable
Fenestrated capillaries
more permeable
found in endocrine glands
sinusoids
most permeable
a lot of pores
capillaries
Explain varicose veins. Why does a pregnant women or an individual with an abdominal tumor have a greater risk of developing varicose veins?
Valves preventing back flow do not work properly, creating blood pooling. Increased mass and constricted blood flow.
Vasoconstriction
Narrowing of blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, increases TPR
Vasodilation
Widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of muscular wall of the vessels, works to decrease TPR
Atria vs Ventricles
Atria is superior and recieves blood while the ventricles are inferior and discharges blood
The small cardiac vein rests in what sulcus on the heart?
atrioventricular sulcus
Pulmonary trunk
collects deoxygenated blood
Pulmonary veins
returns blood to the heart
Right and left pulmonary artery
deliver blood to the lungs where gas exchange occurs
Which heart chamber pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk
Right ventricle
Which heart chamber receives blood from the pulmonary veins?
Left atrium
Pacemaker
sinoatrial node, located in the right atrium
left and right coronary arteries
branch off ascending aorta near origin
supply blood to the heart wall
Thoracic aorta
Where aortic arch descends into thoracic cavity
Abdominal aorta
where descending aorta travels through abdominal cavity
Right and left iliac arteries
supply blood to gluteal muscles, organs in pelvic cavity, and hindlimb
Celiac artery
supplies blood to stomach, spleen, and first segment of small intestine
Phrenic arteries
supply the diaphragm, originate from descending aorta in thorax
Renal arteries
supply the kidneys
Gonadal arteries
supply the scrotum and testes, ovaries, and uterus
Superior mesentric artery
first part of large intestine, two last parts of small intestine
Inferior mesentric artery
supply blood to the end part of large intestine
The aorta runs to the left of what structure
pulmonary vein
Which heart chamber pumps blood into the aorta
Left ventricle
External and internal carotid
main blood supply to brain
Common carotid
travel cranially and supply blood to structures in neck and head
Superficial temporal artery
supplies most of the scalp and salivary gland
Maxillary artery
supplies upper and lower jaws, muscles of mastication, teeth, nasal cavity, and temporal and parietal bones
Facial artery
Supplies the skin and muscles of face
Lingual artery
supplies tongue, soft palate, epiglottis,lingual tonsils, sublingual salivary gland
occipital artery
branches off common carotid, supplies dorsal neck muscles and occipital of skull
Brachial artery
comes from axillary artery
Ulnar artery
terminal branch of brachial artery
Radial artery
terminal branch of brachial artery
Femoral artery
comes from external iliac artery
Tibial arteries
Supply blood to lower hindleg and foot
What is the functional difference between pulmonary arteries and bronchial arteries?
Pulmonary takes deoxygenated blood to the lungs
Bronchial takes oxygenated blood from the lungs
Superior and inferior vena cava
empties into right atrium, receives blood from head, neck upper extremities, and thorax
formed by left and right brachiocephalic veins
subclavian vein
merges with internal jugular vein to form brachiocephalic vein, drains blood from the brain
axillary vein
travels through axilla toward base of neck
becomes subclavian vein
Median cubital vein
connects basilic and cephalic vein
Basilic vein
Medial
cephalic vein
lateral
Suprarenal vein
drain blood from adrenal gland
Hepatic vein
drains blood from the liver
Hepatic portal system
allows body to reabsorb toxins and send out of body
gastric veins
drain blood from stomach,empty into hepatic portal vein
great saphenous vein
longest vein in body
main superficial vein in lower body
azygous vein
drains areas of thoracic, empties into superior vena cava
Intravenous feeding
the introduction of fluids and electrolytes over a long period of time
Which vein is commonly used in graft for open heart bypass?
great saphenous vein
Anastomosis
branches of two or more arteries with different origins to form natural communications
Arterhosclerosis
accumulation of fatty deposits in the tunica intima of arteries, damage and calcification of tunica media, leads to heart disease and stroke
When you flex your arm for an extended period of time it "falls asleep" blocking what major artery in your arm?
Brachial artery
What is collateral circulation and why is it clinically significant?
serves as alternate routes of blood supply, grow and enlarge in someone with heart disease or other blood vessel disease and form a detour around blockage
Venae comitantes
groups of veins arranged around a common artery
necrosis
premature death of cells in living tissue, caused by infection
tissue death
What vein is often used to extract blood for a blood sample?
median cubital vein
Lub sound
represents the closure of the atrioventricular valves (bi and tricuspid valves), during ventricular systole, it is a long, loud sound
dup sound
represents the closure of the semilunar valves during ventricular diastole
it is a short, sharp sound
Nodal cells
non-contractile cardiac fibers
specialized to generate and propagate action potentials or depolarization waves within the heart muscles
systole
contraction
diastole
relaxation
sinus rhythm
steady pace at which it generates and sends depolarization waves to the atria and the AV node
AV node
located in the right atrium, close to the atrioventicular opening; on its own, it is capable of generating action potentials only at a rate of about 55 times per minute so it follows the sinus rhythm of SA
Atrioventricular bundle
bundle of His
a short narrow bundle of conduction fibers from AV node, located in the interatrial septum
Bundle branches
two branches from the AV node, located in the interatrial septum
Purkinje fibers
microscopic fibers from the bundle branch, that take the depolarization waves to the myocardial fibers
heart murmur
incomplete closure of the AV valves can cause regurgitation or backflow of blood into the atria
blood pressure is measured in units called
millimeters of mercury
Why is the brachial artery used to measure arterial blood pressure?
it is at the same level of the heart, so the effects of gravity are negligible
If a person's blood pressure is 140/90, what do the two numbers mean?
systolic pressure is 140 mm Hg and diastolic pressure 90 mm Hg
Of the two blood pressure readings, which is considered to be more critical and why?
diastolic pressure, because it suggests that damage, due to arteriosclerosis, has occurred to the arterial walls
What condition is represented by this blood pressure measurement?
cardiovascular disease
Korotkoff's sounds
thumping sounds, from turbulent blood flow when artery is opened
blood pressure
systolic/diastolic
pulse pressure
systolic pressure-diastolic pressure
Mean arterial pressure
diastolic pressure+1/3 pulse pressure
Hypertension
elevation of blood pressure that is persistant
Why do athletes have slower pulses
Exercise training has increased the volume of oxygen that can be delivered to muscles per heart beat, the heart needs to beat less to do the same job
What is considered the average pulse rate
70-80
Electrocardiography
the instrument that records the electrical activity of the heart
P wave
indicates depolarization for the atria just prior to the beginning of atrial contraction or systole
QRS wave
represents depolarization of ventricles, which precedes ventricular systole
T wave
results from ventricular relaxation or diatole
What is the purpose of an EKG
examine the hearts mechanical activity, useful for diagnosis
Q
atrioventricular septum depolarized
R
left ventricle depollarized
S
right ventricle depolarized
Blood
specialized connective tissue with a liquid matrix called plasma in which the blood cells are suspended
medium of transport of molecules and ions within the body
Blood plasma
liquid part
90% water
55% of blood
Blood cells
RBCs, WBCs, Blood platelets
make up 45% of blood
aka formed elements
Erythrocytes
no nucleus, have hemoglobin protein, carry oxygen to tissues and bring back carbon dioxide
Red blood cells, RBCs
Leukocytes
WBCs, white blood cells
have a nucleus
five types: eocinophil, basophil, monocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil
fight infection
defend body
fewer and larger than RBCs
thrombocytes
blood platelets
fragmented cells
come from megakaryocytes
Function: clotting, repair damaged blood vessels
normal amount of hemoglobin
15.6/100ml of blood
Hematocrit
number value that records percentage of blood composed of red blood cells, estimated carrying capacity of oxygen
What is the normal hematocrit range in men and women
42-52 M
37-47 F
Why do RBCs have a relatively short life span?
no nucleus
What is anemia?
reduction in oxygen carrying capacity, low hematocrit level, low iron, low hemoglobin
What is the difference between serum and plasma?
Plasma is the part of the blood that contains both serum and clotting factors
Serum is the part of the blood that remains once the clotting factors like fibrin have been removed
Neutrophils
most numerous WBCs
called "polys" because they have 3-6 lobed nucleus
Diapedesis
where WBCs can pass through walls and blood vessels in order to enter surrounding tissues to get to the infection
Chemotaxis
characteristic movement or orientation of an organism or cell along a chemical concentration gradient either toward or away from chemical stimulus
Leukemia
abnormal WBCs replace normal ones, normally done in bone marrow
found in red bone marrow
Chronic leukemia
advances slowly
Acute leukemia
hits really quick
Differential WBC count
determines percentage of each WBC type in blood
Infectious mononucleosis
Mono
caused by an infection of epstein bar virus
Surface antigens
agglutinogens
proteins found on outside of WBCs
Antibodies
agglutinins
found in plasma, attacks foreign proten, react with specific antigens
Universal donor
blood type O
Universal recipient
blood type AB
Blood type A
Antigen A
Antibody B
Blood type B
Antigen B
Antibody A
Blood type AB
Antigen A and B
no antibodies
Blood type O
No antigens
Antibodies A and B
Rh factor
antigen
What is the name of the disease associated with the Rh factor?
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Most common blood type in US
O+
Most rare blood type
AB-
Lymph nodes
lack of connective tissue layer, normally houses B, T and other WBCs, filter or trap foreign partibles
Spleen
blood resevoire for RBCs
sythesize antibodies
Thymus
right about heart
development center for T cells
Peyer's Patch
found in wall of small intestine
MALT
mucosa associated lymphoid tissue, present in intestinal tract
tonsils
in wall of pharynx
3: pharyngeal, lingual and palatine
appendix
worm-like appendage, contains aggregated lymphoid nodules
Lymph
Medium to carry lymphocytes, fluid picked up and returned to blood stream
transport lymphocytes through body
Lymph vessels
located near blood capillaries, picks up leaked fluid
Lymph tissue
tissue surrounded by lymphatic organs
T cells ****
Got to the thymus to develop, produce thymocin(hormone)
transported out to tissue
Adenoids
found in pharyngeal tonsils
Palentine tonsils
on posterior side of palate
Lymphatic ducts
right lymphatic duct drains upper half of body
Left drains lower half of the body
Lymphatic valves
Prevent backflow
Edema
blockage of lymph vessels
causing swelling
Elephantiasis
parasitic worms transmitted by mosquitoes, thickens skin and worms live in human lymphatic system, starts swelling
AIDS
helper T cells get attacked and WBCs don't fully grow, suppresses immune system
What would be the effect on the immune system if the thymus was not functioning normally during childhood?
T cells don't mature, don't make thymocine, no mature white blood cells
Why is it important to have an abundance of lymphatic nodules located along the respiratory and digestive tracts
Lymph nodules form in regions of frequent exposure to microorganisms or foreign materials and contribute to the defense against them
Thymus
covered by a connective tissue capsule, which gives rise to connective tissue septa that se=ubdivide each lobe
Thymus cortex
outer layer with a dense population of lymphocytes
Thymus medulla
inner layer with far fewer lymphocytes
Thymocytes
produce thymic hormones
thymosins
A hormone secreted by the thymus that stimulates development of T cells.
T lymphocytes
responsible for cell-mediated immune response
directly attack and destroy foreign microorganisms by phagocytosis or by releasing chemicals
White pulp
compact masses of lymphocytes that are scattered throughout the spleen
Red pulp
in most of the spleen, completely surrounds red pulp
sinusoids
in red pulp, lined with numerous monocytes and macrophages, filled with RBCs
Germinal centers
where new lymphocytes are produced
B cells
initiate the humoral immune response by differentiating into plasma cells
Antigens
things such as disease causing microorganisms
antibodies
made by plasma cells, bond to and destroy foreign antigens
humoral immunity
initiated by B lymphocytes
Two distinct regions of the lymph node
outer cortex and medulla