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Emile Zola

(1840-1902) He was famous for his views on the working class and thier "animalistic" characteristics and also for his novel "Germinalistics" which showed his sympathy for socialism.

Leo Tolstoy

(1828-1910) A Russian realist who combined realism in description making him noticed for his famous work "War and Peace"which conveyed his central message of people accepting human love, trust, and everyday family ties.

Theodore Dreiser

(1871-1945) Creator of the novel "Sister Carrie" which showed social changes of time and caused an issue so the publisher had to withdraw the book.

Miasmatic Theory

The belief that people get diseases by breathing the bad odors of decaying and putrefying excrement.

Germ Theory

The idea that disease was caused by the spread of living organisms and was able to be under control with the proper medications.

Bacterial Revolution

This was a time in which sanitation was improved in cities, improving health conditions leading to more medical knowledge and the usage of vaccines.

Electric Streetcar

The beginning of the real revolution, this car ran on electricity rather than having horse-pulled carriages. These cars were faster, cheaper, and more efficient.


This was a branch of physics that was built upon the knowledge of Issac Newton's laws of mechanics and it investigated the relationship between heat and mechanical energy.


It emerged in the 1840's and dominated western culture. This was the idea of realist writers believing literature should depict life as it really was.


Study of how individulaists and society would work together in order to build a better community through economic planning, economic equality, and state regulation of property.


Applied by many thinkers, this idea means that there is gradual change and continuous adjustment; it was present in many of Darwin's theories especially on natural selection.

James Hargreaves

A carpenter who created the spinning jenny, a hand-powered spinning machine to help with the production of cotton yarn.

Richard Arkwright

A barber-turned-manufactuer who created the water frame close to the time in the invention of the spinning jenny. It required a large mill/factory as well as waterpower, creating 10 times more cotton yarn.

Samuel Crompton

Invented a better technique around 1790 for spinning cotton and this used much more power than what a human arm could supply.

Edmund Cartwright

He achieved in building the power loom in 1785 which helped save on labor costs.

James Watt

A young Scot who worked on improving the steam engine making it more faster and efficient as well as Britain's commercial success, and making it the Industrial Revolution's most advanced technology.

George Stephenson

Built an effective locomotive in 1830 called the "Rocket" which was tested on a railway and went 16 miles per hour. This led to an era of railroad construction.

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