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•First 2 weeks
The zygote begins to duplicate, divide and differentiate
•Blastocyst: a cell mass that develops from the zygote
•The blastocyst becomes two distinct masses
•Must achieve implantation
The first hours and days of human development involve the processes of:
duplication, division, and differentiation
The fragile and tiny cell mass that is composed of cells from the duplicated, divided, and differentiated zygote is called:
Fetal Period: Months 4 to 6
•Age of Viability (22 weeks)
•Higher risk for disorders
Fetal Period: Months 7 to Birth
Maturation of Body Systems
•How about responsiveness towards mom and dad
Which statistic accurately reflects the vulnerability of prenatal development?
Only 31% of all conceptions become living newborn babies.
•"one of the biggest medical tragedies of modern times"
•Responsible for physical deformities
Teratogens: substances and conditions that increase the risk of prenatal abnormalities
•Science of weighing the chances that a particular teratogen will affect the fetus
Prenatal Risk: Amount
•Threshold effect: some teratogens are harmless until a exposure reaches a certain level
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
•Using or abusing alcohol during pregnancy
•Spectrum of Symptoms
•Problems with the child's face
• Preventative measures can be taken against known teratogens
• Prenatal care
• How can mothers prepare?
b. Trying to find out what to do when there is conflicting information on different opinions on what to do
c. Gain or lose weight depending
d. Use of medications
i. Stop certain prescriptions
ii. Take vitamins
e. Take care of yourself- work out; eat healthy; etc.
the Role of Prenatal Stress in Child Development
• What are your reactions to the article
a. Some stress is good for the baby
b. One of our ideas about stress and prenatal development- was wrong
c. Linear relationship
i. As stress increases-more stress in the body-reduce ideal development; but the article says the "INVERTED U"-don't be not stressed at all or don't be too stressed
d. Not conclusive results- animal studies doesn't apply to humans
• What are your thoughts on prenatal stress
• How might these results differ when comparing one individual to another?
• Most fetuses are born head first
• 1 in 20 babies are breech-feet or buttocks first
• It is rare that the fetus will be lying on the side
i. Then impossible for vaginal birth
• Apgar Scale-1 minute and 5 min after birth
a. Heart rate
c. Muscle tone
• If below 7 then they need help
• If below 4 newborn is in critical condition
a. Soft spots on the top and back of newborn's head
b. Back one closes first-time the baby is 2-4 months old
c. One in front closes at 18 months on average; 9-12 months at earliest
Vacuum-assisted delivery is a type of delivery method for birth
• Cone head could come from this
• It all goes back to normal
• Sometimes the baby won't come out even though the mom is ready so they use the vacuum to assist in delivery
• When vaginal birth is happening
Methods for birth
• Medical intervention
• Home birth- 1% Spontaneous labor, or half is by choice
a. Risk complications
a. Women who helps with the birth process
b. Attending births
c. Helping with breast feeding
d. Help with everything regarding birth...etc.
• C-sections- new designer baby delivery system trend in the media 30%
• Anything in the newborn, mother, or birth process that requires special medical attention
Birth Complications: Anoxia
•Difficulties with movement and speech
•resulting from brain damage
Birth Complications: Low Birthweight (LBW)
•Body weight less than 5.5 lbs
•Small for gestational age (SGA)
•Risk factors for LBW or SGA
•Placenta or umbilical cord
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