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up until the depression


aka the money guys or "angels"
-Hires the creative team: lyricist, playwright (librettist), director, choreographer and designer
-has the final say

David Merrick

asshole, but powerfull
-88 productions.. "hello dolly" "gippsy"

Harold Prince

62 productions and equally good director

"the color purple"

oprahs name was bigger than the title


-writes the story line
-writes the dialogue for the characters "the book"
-works with composer, lyricist and director


writes the music

big names: arthur sullivan, Richard rogers, julie stine


a person who writes the words for songs
-used to be male dominated
-Betty Comden (first woman)

Composer and lyricist

cole porter, Jerry Herman, stephen sondheim, stephen shwarts, learner and low, rogers and hart


stages the play
-casts actors
-reports directly to the producer


frequently stages movement within song
-works with director and composer
Tommy Tune: out of texas
jerry mitchell: hairy spray
Susan strollman
jerome Robins

set/scenic designer

designs enviornment
-designs clothing worn by actors
-lighting of production

sound designer

designs sound effects, microphone usage

musical director

coordinates all musical elements
-works directly with director, composer, lyricist

the star

Ex: sutan foster, had to proce herself. take the lead roll in the play

supporting roles

not as important as the star, but has a decent role


background actors

New York Theaters

off off broadway: not very big, 99 seats or less

off broadway: slightly bigger 100-499 seats

broadway: 500 or more


off off= NY innovative theatre award

pulitzer prize

joseph pulitzer
1932, first broadway musical
$10k prize

tony awards

NYC- based organization
supports excellence

broadway league

theatre owners and operators, producers, presenters, GMs, and 250 cities

"The disapointment"

1967: first musical ever, philalphia, was banned

Ministry shows

late 1600s-1910, 1st distinctly american theater form-- white men where black make-up

thomas Rice- Jim crow

Show boats

began in 1830s-1940s
Mississippi and Ohio River
-civil war disrupted (1961-1965)

the operetta

european import
-all the rage in 1880s
- mellow music
-william s. gilbert, arthur sullivan

H.M.S. Pinafore

first international hit musical (operetta)
-laid grown work for 20th century musicals

W.S Gilbert

-had a list of people he wanted to hurt
-Pirartes and Penzance


A type of inexpensive variety show that first appeared in the 1870s, often consisting of comic sketches, song-and-dance routines, and magic acts


a composition that imitates somebody's style in a humorous way (underdressed woman)

1st musical

"black crook"
-total accident
-integrated with dancers

Lillian Russell

1st famous woman

The American Opera

-written by american immigrants
composers: rudolf friml, sugmund romberg, victor herbert

Copyright act of 1909

lobbied before congress to have passed, so people couldnt steal and re produce other peoples work


American society of composers, aithors and publishers--so people get paid for their work


Producer: had chorus of beautiful women, musical revue with new composers for each show, lavishly spectacle shows, used false advertising for promoting shows

George M. cohan

An American songwriter and entertainer of the early twentieth century, known for such rousing songs as "Over There," "Yankee Doodle Dandy," and "You're a Grand Old Flag."

Bert Williams

was an african american star, made fun of african americans in his rolls

irving Berlin

A twentieth-century American writer of popular songs (words and music). His songs include "God Bless America," "White Christmas," and "There's no Business like Show Business."

Fanny Bryce

2 for 1, she was very versatile, could be hilarious, or serious. ugly woman

the great world war

didnt stop broadway but changed what was going on


revolutionized music

theatrical syndicate

"closed shop": if you dont work for me you work for nobody, (1896-1915) 6 managers and booking agents who monopolized the major U.S. cities. Elevated commercial theatre over artistic theatre, Ethel Barrymore fought against syndicate.


bought theatres
-operated like syndicate
- collected actors


Did not come around until after the great war

American federation of music


american federation of labor

The first federation of labor unions in the United States. Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886

actors equity association 1913

-most racist time in america
red summer of 1919

red summer of 1919

a term used to describe violent postwar strikes and racial strife in the us at the end of world war 1

David belasco

Bishop of broadway, bc he wore black a lot
-very realistic


people drinking a lot, rebellion, speak easies

Jazz age (1920s)

took over the 1920s
flappers: shorts skirts, smoking. men wearing raccoon hats, mob gets really big

Marilyn Miller

big 20s star, was known for cussing like a sailor

Al jolson

biggest 20s star (black face). Knew he was a big deal and wasnt a afraid to tell people

"Shuffle along"

Eubie Blake and Noble Sissle
-first show that allowed blacks in orchestra seats

George and Ira Gershwin

"lady be good"
Dance is now becoming important (tells the story)
"facinating rythm" was most famous

Walter Winchell

"Bard of Broadway"

is where the term "the big apple" comes from


-first musical play
-both format and racially
-jerone kern(composer)
oscar hammerstein II(lyricist)
-only given 21 days
-1st performance = 4hrs, 10 minutes
-tremendous gamble for ziefeld
-previously taboo themes:drinking, divorce..
-depth of music
-three dimensional characters
-dramatic truth
-1927, hit the stage


popular after "showboat" A musical comedy by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. It began a new era of sophistication in musical comedy and was the first of several very successful Rodgers and Hammerstein shows.

al Hirschfeld

Chronicled broadway
-started with NY times (1928)
-chronicled what was going on in the world
-put his daughters name in all of his pictures

Jazz age

-broadways most productive period
-284 new shows in 1 yr
-today only 11 new shows
-public now listening to lyrics
-operetta still popular

stars of jazz age

Fred and adele astaire
marilyn miller
al jolson
-composers now becoming known


wall street crashes, people live in Hoovervilles: little crappy tents

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