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28 terms

Mr. Z Chapter 10

STUDY
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Asexual Reproduction
Growth of new organisms without the fusion of nuclei (sexual reproduction). Usually involves one parent and leads to clones (genetically identical offspring).
Binary fission
Division of a cell into two equally sized cells (a type of asexual reproduction). Most bacteria do this.
Budding
Division of a cell where one begins as an outgrowth of the parent cell. A type of asexual reproduction.
Cloning
Asexual reproduction in which new individuals receive genetic information from a single parent cell (instead of a combination of two parents).
Fertilization
fusion of nuclei from two gametes (sex cells) during sexual reproduction. (Resulting cell is a zygote).
Fragmentation
Type of asexual reproduction in which a piece breaks off from a parent.
Gametes
Reproductive cells (like sperm or eggs). Contains one set of unpaired chromosomes ("normal" cells contain two sets). During sexual reproduction two gametes fuse together.
Meiosis
Special type of cell division resulting in gametes (sex cells with half of the "normal" amount of genetic information).
Mitosis
Cell division. Can be a form of asexual reproduction.
Ova (singular: ovum)
female gametes. Also known as eggs. Much larger than sperm.
Sexual reproduction
fusion of nuclei of two gametes.
Sperm
male gametes. Usually motile (can move).
Spores
Asexual reproductive cells that can develop directly into a complete organism (usually found in fungi).
Sporulation
reproducing asexually using spores.
Zygote
the first cell resulting from the fusion of two gametes. Contains a full set of genetic information (half from a sperm, half from an egg).
Steps to Cloning
1.Obtain an egg cell and remove its contents. 2.Obtain a somatic (normal) cell of the organism you would like to clone and extract its DNA. 3.Inject the DNA into the empty egg cell. 4.Treat with chemicals until it begins to grow. 5.Implant the egg into a surrogate. 6.Wait until birth.
Artificial Embryo Twinning
Purposely dividing growing ball of cells. When this occurs naturally it forms twins.
Follicle
place where an ovum matures. On surface of an ovary.
Ovulation
Mature ovum bursts out of follicle (middle of 28 day cycle)
Uterus
womb.
Uterus (what happens during ovulation and beyond?)
Thickens and new blood vessels, preparing to support a growing embryo.
Uterus (why must it thicken?)
For fertilized egg to implant.
Ovum (period of time it can be fertilized?)
10-15 hours after ovulation
Sperm (period of time it can fertilize?)
72 hours (can be deposited three days before ovulation)
Corpus luteum
structure that follicle becomes after ovulation. Begins releasing progesterone, which maintains a thickened uterus.
If no pregnancy
corpus luteum disintegrates after about 12 days, hormones drop
Mentruation
part of thickened uterine lining passes through vagina and out of body.
Reproductive Strategy
Things that make a species successful. Includes items such as number of offspring, length of gestation, age of sexual maturity, development of offspring prior to birth, time spent with offspring, etc.