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Chapter 13: Paths to Constitutionalism and Absolutism
Terms in this set (50)
British Houses of Government, comprised of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Shared responsibility for government with the Monarch. Met regularly.
Was a legislative assembly of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. It had a separate assembly for each of the three estates, which were called and dismissed by the king. It had no true power in its own right—unlike the English parliament it was not required to approve royal taxation or legislation instead it functioned as an advisory body to the king, primarily by presenting petitions from the various estates and consulting on fiscal policy. The Estates-General met intermittently until 1614 and rarely afterwards, but was not definitively dissolved until after the French Revolution.
James VI of Scotland. Succeeded the childless Queen Elizabeth as James I of England. Reigned from 1603-1625. Not very well known, and as a Scot, was not very popular in England.
Trew Law of Free Monarchies
Book written by James I in 1598. The king strongly advocated the divine right of Kings, which was the subject of the book.
The Crown of England traditionally exercised the right to impose import duties for the regulation of trade and the protection of domestic industry. New impositions of this kind were imposed by Elizabeth I on currants and tobacco in 1601 and extended by King James I to most imports in 1608. Parliament did not like the impositions, but did seek a serious confrontation.
Was a list of requests given to James I by Puritans in 1603 when he was travelling to London in order to claim the English throne. It is claimed, but not proven, that this petition had 1,000 signatures of Puritan ministers. This carefully worded document expressed Puritan distaste regarding the state of the Anglican Church.
Duke of Buckingham
The Duke of Buckingham was a title that was recreated in 1623 under the reign of James I. The title was created for his favorite, George Villers. George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 - 23 August 1628) was the favourite, of King James I of England. Despite a very patchy political and military record, he remained at the height of royal favour for the first two years of the reign of Charles I, until he was assassinated. He was one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history. Claimed by some historians to be the secret lover to James I.
The daughter of the king of Spain.
Charles I (19 November 1600 - 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649, and is a saint in the Church of England. Unable to get funding from Parliament for the war in Spain, so Charles levied new tariffs and duties and attemped to collect discontinued taxes.
Petition of Right
Was an important document of declaration of constitutional freedom that required that there should be no forced loans or taxation without the consent of Parliament, that no freeman should be imprisoned without due cause, and that troops should not be quartered in civilian's homes. Charles I reluctantly agreed to the petition.
A group within the Church of England who rejected many Puritan doctrines and favored elaborate, high-church practices.
A policy instituted by Thomas Wentworth. The policy imposed strict efficiency and administrative centralization in government, and its goal was to absolute royal control of England. The sucess of the policy depended on the king's ability to operate independently of Parliament.
A tax that Charles I of England tried to levy without the consent of Parliament. This tax, which was only applied to coastal towns during a time of war, was intended to offset the cost of defending that part of the coast, and could be paid in actual ships or the equivalent value. The collection of the tax inland during peacetime started in 1634 and provoked increasing resistance by 1636. This conflict was one of the causes of the English Civil War.
(1584 - 8 December 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of James I and then Charles I.
The Short Parliament was a Parliament of England that sat from 13 April to 5 May 1640 during the reign of King Charles I of England, so called because it lasted only three weeks.
The Long Parliament of England was established on 3 November 1640 to pass financial bills, following the Bishops' Wars. It received its name from the fact that through an Act of Parliament, it could only be dissolved with the agreement of the members, and those members did not agree to its dissolution until after the English Civil War and at the end of Interregnum in 1660. It sat from 1640 until 1648.
Was a list of grievances presented to King Charles I of England by the English Parliament on 1 December 1641, but passed by the House of Commons on the 22nd of November 1641, during the Long Parliament; it was one of the chief events which were to precipitate the English Civil War.
Was a piece of legislation passed by the Long Parliament of England in March 1642, which was a major step towards the Civil War between the King and Parliament of England. Previously the King had the sole right to appoint the Lord Lieutenants, who were in charge of the county militias. These militias were the only land forces available in peacetime, because England had no regular standing army.
New Model Army
Formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration. It differed from other armies in the series of civil wars referred to as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in that it was intended as an army liable for service anywhere in the country (including in Scotland and Ireland), rather than being tied to a single area or garrison. Its soldiers became full-time professionals, rather than part-time militia.
An event that happened in 6 December 1648, during the Second English Civil War, when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the Long Parliament all those who were not supporters of the Grandees in the New Model Army and the Independents. It is arguably the only military coup d'état in English history.
The name of the English Parliament after Colonel Pride purged the Long Parliament on 6 December 1648 of those members hostile to the Grandees' intention to try King Charles I for high treason.
(25 April 1599 - 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader who overthrew the English monarchy and temporarily turned England into a republican Commonwealth, and served as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
In English history, penal law refers to a specific series of laws that sought to uphold the establishment of the Church of England against Protestant nonconformists and Roman Catholics, by imposing various forfeitures, civil penalties, and civil disabilities upon these dissenters. The four that made up the Clarendon Code were the Corporation Act of 1661, the Act of Uniformity of 1662, the Conventicle Act of 1664, and the Five Mile Act of 1665.
Were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. The principle was that none but persons professing the Established Church were eligible for public employment, and the severe penalties pronounced against recusants, whether Catholic or Nonconformist, were affirmations of this principle.
(14 October 1633 - 16 September 1701) was King of England and King of Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685. He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Alienated Parliament by insisting on the repeal of the Test Act. Issued the Declaration of Indulgence.
Declaration of Indulgence
Suspended all religious tests and permitted free worship. Local candidates for Parliament who opposed the Declaration of Indulgence were removed by royal soldiers and replaced by Catholics. Was enforced so much sometimes, that once, James II imprisoned 7 bishops for not publicly announcing that the king had done away with the laws against Catholics.
William and Mary
The coregency over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, of King William III & II and Queen Mary II. Their joint reign began in February 1689, when they were offered the throne by the Parliament of England, replacing James II & VII, Mary's father and William's uncle/father-in-law, who was "deemed to have fled" the country in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. After Mary died in 1694, William ruled alone until his death in 1702. William and Mary were childless and were ultimately succeeded by Mary's younger sister, Anne.
The overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England.
Bill of Rights
A bill of rights that was recognized by William and Mary that limited the power of the monarchy and guaranteed the civil liberties of the English privileged classes. Prohibited Roman Catholics from occupying the English throne.
The Toleration Act of 1689
Permitted worship by all protestants but outlawed Roman Catholics and anti-Trinitarians (those who denied the Christian doctrine of the Trinity.)
Second Treatise of Government
In the treatise, written by John Locke, Locke describes the relationship of the king and his people as a bilateral contract. If the king broke that contract, than the people had the right to dispose of him. Written before the Glorious Revolution.
5 September 1638 - 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre. He holds the distinction of being the longest-reigning king in European history, reigning for 72 years and 101 days. Subjected his subjects to "one king, one law, one faith."
Royal civil servants
(9 September 1585 - 4 December 1642) was a French clergyman, noble and statesman. Consecrated as a bishop in 1608, he later entered politics, becoming a Secretary of State in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a Cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642.
The national interest, often referred to by the French expression raison d'État (English: reason of the State), is a country's goals and ambitions whether economic, military, or cultural. The concept is an important one in international relations where pursuit of the national interest is the foundation of the realist school.
Jules Mazarin (1602-1661), born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino or Mazarini, was a French-Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the chief minister of France from 1642 until his death. Mazarin succeeded his mentor, Cardinal Richelieu. He was a noted collector of art and jewels, particularly diamonds, and he bequeathed the "Mazarin diamonds" to Louis XIV in 1661, some of which remain in the collection of the Louvre museum in Paris.
A civil war in France, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635. The word fronde means sling, which Parisian mobs used to smash the windows of supporters of Cardinal Mazarin.
Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bussuet
Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet (27 September 1627 - 12 April 1704) was a French bishop and theologian, renowned for his sermons and other addresses. He has been considered by many to be one of the most brilliant orators of all time and a masterly French stylist.
The palace court on the outskirts of Paris that became Louis XIV's permanent residence after 1682. Designed to proclaim the glory of the king.
Jansenism arose in the 1630's as part if a Catholic oppression to the theology and the political influence of the Jesuits. They adhered to the Augustinian tradition that had spawned many Protestant teachings.
(6 February 1612-8 August 1694) Was a French Roman Catholic theologian, philosopher, and mathematician. He was one of the leading intellectuals of the Jansenist group of Port-Royal and had a very thorough knowledge of patristics.
(29 August 1619 - 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. His relentless hard work and thrift made him an esteemed minister. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy.
Marquis of Louvois
(18 January 1641 - 16 July 1691) was the French Secretary of State for War for a significant part of the reign of Louis XIV. Louvois and his father, Michel le Tellier, would increase the French Army to 400,000 soldiers, an army that would fight four wars between 1667 and 1713. He is commonly referred to as "Louvois".
(15 May 1633 - 30 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and breaking through them. He also advised Louis XIV on how to consolidate France's borders, to make them more defensible. Vauban made a radical suggestion of giving up some land that was indefensible to allow for a stronger, less porous border with France's neighbors.
War of Devolution
(1667-1668) saw Louis XIV's French armies overrun the Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Franche-Comté, but forced to give most of it back by a Triple Alliance of England, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
War with the Netherlands
Dutch War, also called Franco-dutch War, (1672-78), the second war of conquest by Louis XIV of France, whose chief aim in the conflict was to establish French possession of the Spanish Netherlands after having forced the Dutch Republic's acquiescence. The Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672-74) formed part of this general war.
The League of Augsburg
The League of Augsburg was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, the Dutch Republic, England, the Holy Roman Empire, Ireland, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Savoy, Saxony, Scotland, Spain and Sweden. The organization, which was founded in 1686 as the League of Augsburg, was known as the "Grand Alliance" after England joined the League (in 1689). It was originally formed in an attempt to halt Louis XIV of France's expansions.
The Nine Years War
The Nine Years' War (Irish: Cogadh na Naoi mBliana) or Tyrone's Rebellion took place in Ireland from 1594 to 1603. It was fought between the forces of Gaelic Irish chieftains Hugh O'Neill of Tír Eoghain, Hugh Roe O'Donnell of Tír Chonaill and their allies, against English rule in Ireland. The war was fought in all parts of the country, but mainly in the northern province of Ulster. It ended in defeat for the Irish chieftains, which led to their exile in the Flight of the Earls and to the Plantation of Ulster.The war against O'Neill and his allies was the largest conflict fought by England in the Elizabethan era. At the height of the conflict (1600-1601) more than 18,000 soldiers were fighting in the English army in Ireland. By contrast, the English army assisting the Dutch during the Eighty Years' War was never more than 12,000 strong at any one time.
War of Spanish Succession
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714) was fought among several European powers, including a divided Spain, over the possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch. As France and Spain were among the most powerful states of Europe, such a unification would have drastically altered the European balance of power. The war was fought primarily by forces supporting the unification, the Spanish loyal to Philip V, France and the Electorate of Bavaria, against those opposing unification, the Spanish loyal to Archduke Charles, the Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, Portugal and the Duchy of Savoy. The forces were known as the Two Crowns and Grand Alliance, respectively.
The Grand Alliance
Created in September 1701, and consisted of England, Holland, and the Holy Roman Empire. Created to counter Louis XIV. Sought to preserve the balance of power by once and for all securing Flanders as a neutral barrier between Holland and France. After the formation of the Alliance, Louis XIV recognized the claim of James Edward to the English throne.
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