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47 terms

AP Southward Psychology Chapter 5

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sensation
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information and enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
bottom up processing
analysis that behings with the sense receptors and works up to the brains intergration of sensory information
top down processing
information processing guided by higher level mental processes as when we conxtruct perceptions drawing our experience and expectations
psychophysics
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli such as their intensity and our psychological experience of them
absolute treshhold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
signal dtection theory
predicts how and when we dectect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation. assume there is no absolute treshhold and that detection depends party on a persons experience expecattions motivation and level of fatigue
subliminal
below ones absolute treshhold for conscious awareness
defference treshhold
the minimum difference that a person can detect between to stimuli. we experience the difference treshold as just noticeable difference
webers law
the principle that to perceive their difference two stimuli must differ by a constact minimum percentage rather than a constant amount
sensory adaption
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
transduction
coversion of one from of energy into another. in sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses
wavelength
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
hue
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength
intensity
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, brightenss or loundness, determined by amplitude
pupil
adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
iris
ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored protion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of pupil opening
lens
transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape tofocus images on the retina
accommodation
the process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus the image of near objets to the retina
retina
light sensitive inner surface of the eye containing the receptor nods and cones plus layers of neurons that behing the processing of visual information
acuity
sharpness of vision
nearsightedness
condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objets because the lens focuses the image of distant objects in the front of the retina
farsightedness
condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objets because the image of near objets is focused behind the retina
rods
retinal receptors that detect black white and gray, necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cones dont respond
cones
receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina tha function in daylight or in well lit conditions. the cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations
optic nerve
carries neural impulses from eye to the brain
blind spot
the point at which the potic never leaves the eye creating a blind spot because there are no receptor cells
fovea
the central focal point in the retina around which the eyes cones cluster
feature decetors
nerve cells in the brain the respond to specific features of the stimulus such as shape angle or movement
parallel processing
processing of several aspects of a problems simultaneously, the brains natural mode of information processing for many fuctions including vision. contrasts with stepe by step processing of most computers and of conscious problems solving
young helmholtz trichromatic three color theory
theory that the retina contains three different color receptors, which when stimulated in combination can produce toe perception of any color. on senstivie to red one to green one to blue
opponent process theory
theory that opposing retinal process (red green yellow blue white black) enable color vision. ex-some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red ect
color constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
audition
the sense of hearing
frequency
number of complete wavelenghts that pass a point in a given time
pitch
tones highness or lowness, depends on frequency
middle ear
chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones, concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochleas oval window
inner ear
innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea semicurcular canals and vertibular sacs
cochlea
coiled, bony fluid filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
place theory
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochyleas membrane is stimulated
frequence theory
theory that the reate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nevrve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
conduction hearing loss
hearing loss cusae by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sounds waves to the cochlea
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss cause by damage to the cochleas receptor cells or to the auditory nerves`
gate control theory
theory that the spinal cord contails a neurological gate that blocks pain singals or allows them to pass on to the brain. gate is opened by the acitivty of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in large fivers or by information coming from the brain
sensory interaction
principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste
kinesthesis
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
vestibular sense
sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance