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Chapter 3 Federalism

Chapter 3 Federalism REview
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Of the diffrent ways of ordering relations between central governments and local units, the most common method in the world today is a
unitary system
In a unitary system of governement, the ultimate governement authority is the
national or central governement
In a unitary system of governement, the ultimate governement authority is the
national or central government
In a unitary system of government, the decisions of the governments of the provinces
can be overruled by the national government
In a unitary sysytem, the flow of power is
from the central government to the local and state governments
France is an example of
a unitary system
The commonwealth of Independent State is an example of
a confederal system
In a confederal political system the central governing unit has
no ability to make laws applicable without approval of state government.
In a federal political system power is
shared between the central government and regional governments
Our federal system of government was a compromise between those who favored
a strong central government and those who favored strong state governments
Obstacles to the creation of a unitary government at the Constiutional Convention included
the size and regional isolation would have been operationally difficult
In a federal political system state governments can
test new ideas by initaiting new laws within thier scope of power.
One of the arguments against Federalism is
that state and local interess can block progress and impede national plans
Enumerated powers of the national government do not include
the power to conduct elections
"Enumerated powers" means
the powers expressly delegated to the national government
the Tenth amendment states that the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are
reserved to the states respectively or the people
the authority to legislate for the protection of the health, morlas, and safty of the people are called
police power
powers held jointly by the national and state governments are called
concurrent powers
reserved powers of the state governments include the power to
regulate commerce within its borders
states may not
make treaties with foreign nations
Most concurrent powers
are not specifically stated in the Constitution but rather only implied
the supremacy clause of the constitution means that
states cannot use their reserved or concurrent powers to thwart national policies
Preemption means
national laws take precedence over state laws
Activities, problems and policies that require state governments to interact with one another are called
horizontal federalism
the concept of horizontal federalism deals with relationships between
state governments
An agreement between two or more states is called
an interstate compact
States may enter into agreements called interstate compacts if
consented to by Congress
Most of the disputes regarding boundaries of national versus state power involve
diffrent interpretations of the implied powers of the national governments
The question(s) before the supreme court in McCulloch v. Maryland
was could the national government charter a bank, and was could a state tax a national bank
In the case of McCulloch v. Maryland, the supreme court held that
only when acts of congress are forbidden by the constitution are they unconstitutional
The section of the constitution in which congress is given the authority to regulate trade among the states and with foreign countries is called
the commerce clause
Gibbons v. Ogden concerned
the commerce clause
In Gibbons v. Ogden, the court held that
the national government can regulate commerce in states
In the case of Gibbons v. Ogden, commerce is defined as
all commerical intercourse
the heart of the controversy that led to the Civil War was the issue of
national government supremacy versus the rights of the separate states
The concept of nullification was an attempt to
indicate that states should have the ultimate authority over its citizens
an order issued by a court to compel or restrain the preformance of an act is called
an injunction
Nullification was used to justify
secession
the act of formally withdrawing from membership in an alliance called
secession
The first national income tax was passed in order to
pay for the huge debt caused by the civil war
both the increased spending by the national government and the nationally imposed income tax were
precursors to the expanded role of the national government
The civil war, brought about in large part because of the South's desire for increased states' rights, resulted in
an increase in the political power of the national government
The North's victory in the Civil War set the nation on the path to
modern industrial economy
In the area of economic regulation, the legal doctrine of dual federalism emphasized
an equality between federal and state in their spheres of sovereignty
Cooperative federalism was a natural outcome of Franklin D. Roosevelt's new deal programs because
federal grants were given to states to administer programs
The model of federalism where specific programs involve all levels of government is called
picket-fence federalism
Categorical grants in aid are
grants to states or local governments for very specific programs
The concept of federal mandates refers to
requirements in federal legislation that force states to comply with certain rules
In Printz v. United States, the supreme court
struck down provisions in the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act
The supreme court has interpreted the 11th amendment to mean
states cant be sued for violating rights established by federal laws