Biology 103 Chapter 8
Terms in this set (32)
The molecule that contains the information for making a cell's proteins and copies itself for the next generation of cells is
The four nitrogen bases that are found in the different nucleotides of DNA are
adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine.
Strong evidence of semiconservative replication of DNA comes from the DNA molecule structure, in that
the DNA molecule is double-stranded, allowing one original strand to be conserved while its replicate forms one strand.
Complementary DNA strands are held together by
The genome of an organism is all of its
The process by which DNA is reproduced, with the use of associated enzymes, is
DNA replication is
The enzyme that unwinds and separates the paired DNA strands is
The enzyme that builds a short complementary piece of RNA at the start of each DNA segment to be replicated is
The enzyme that adds nucleotides to the 3' end of a growing DNA strand is called
Apoptosis is a name for the process of
programmed cell death
A discrete continuous molecule of DNA, wrapped with its associated proteins, defines the term
DNA is packaged to protect and manage the genetic information of the cell. What is the correct comparison between the packaging units of DNA?
While chromatin is the collective term for the substance of DNA and associated proteins, chromosomes are the distinct units that are compact and visible during cell division.
A part of a chromosome, that attaches sister chromatids to each other, defines the term
In a small percentage of cells, you see chromosomes as distinct strands just as cell division begins, and as it progresses, because the chromatin
becomes more tightly wound, to protect DNA, and to more easily manage cell division.
After replication, in eukaryotes, both the original and its replicated copy chromosome are each called a
Sister chromatids are
genetically identical and attached to each other at the centromere.
The two main stages of the eukaryote cell cycle, in which the cell spends most of its time and metabolic energy, are
interphase and mitosis.
The correct sequence for the phases of the cell cycle, starting with a newly divided cell, is
interphase - mitosis - cytokinesis.
The portion of the cytoskeleton that attaches, pulls, and guides the chromosomes as they are separated equally into two sets is the
In which of these mitosis phases is the replication of DNA accomplished?
None of these answer options are correct, because replication does not happen during mitosis.
The correct sequence for the phases of mitosis, shown in correct sequence in this diagram, is
prophase - prometaphase - metaphase - anaphase - telophase.
The phase of mitosis in which the centromeres split and sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles of the cell is
D, which is anaphase.
The phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes condense and centrosomes move to opposite poles of the cell is
A, which is prophase.
The phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes are aligned along the equator of the cell is
C, which is metaphase.
The proteins to which the mitotic spindle attaches on a chromosome are
In an asexual life cycle, cells reproduce by
In a sexual life cycle, a zygote grows to an adult by
If one strand of a DNA molecule has the base sequence of 5'-ATGTGCC-3' the complementary strand of DNA will read
When DNA replicates
one strand of the original DNA ends up in each of the new DNA molecules.
In order for a cell to become cancerous, oncogenes must be ___, or tumor suppressors are ___.
The enzyme telomerase adds DNA to the ends of chromosomes. Why would cancer cells express high levels of telomerase?
As telomeres get shorter, a cell loses the ability to divide.