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The Evolution and Diversity of Plants
(7 Important Characteristics of) Plants
1. Sporic Meiosis 2.Multicellular 3.Dominant Diploid Sporophyte(except Bryophyte) 4.Photosynthetic 5.Heteromorphic Alternation of Generations 6.Cell Walls=Cellulose 7.Store Excess Carbohydrates as Starch
Waxy covering on plants that minimizes the loss of water
4 Characteristics of Bryophytes
1. Vascular System Not Well Developed 2.Dominant Haploid Generation 3.Need H20 for Sperm Cells to Swim 4.Sporophyte Generation Metabolically Dependent on Gametophyte Generation
Bryophyte Phyla and Descriptions
generation begins with fertilization and produces seeds
gamete-producing structures located at the top of plant
-produce a large # of sperm
-produce a single egg
area of attachment to parent gametophyte
where meiosis occurs and haploid spores produced
germinate into a filamentous protonema
gives rise to haploid spores thru meiosis
--> multicellular haploid phase
-produce gametes thru mitosis and differentiation
--multicellular haploid phase
(2 Phyla of) Seedless Vascular (Plants)
(characteristics and examples?)
-need H20 for sperm to swim
-true leafs and true roots
-well-developed but primitive vasculature
-ex: Club Mosses, ground pines, quillworks
(characteristics, phylum, examples)
-need H20 for sperm to swim
-well-developed vascular system
-no true roots or leaves--> photoseynthetic stem
-gametangia located on underside
-Phyla: Psilotum=psilophytes, Equisetum=horsetails&scouring rushes
-Ex: whisk ferns, scouring rushes, true ferns
conduction of H20 and minerals
conduction of organic minerals
leaves-large and divided in2 leaflets
circular structure that consists of sporangia
-haploid gametophyte generation
anchorage and absorption of minerals
Seed Plants 2 Major Groups
Angiosperm and Gymnosperm
(def and phyla?)
Phylum Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, Coniferophyta
cycads superficially resemble palm trees short in stature
-Ex: Ephedra, Welwitzchia, Gnetum
-most closely related to angiosperms b/c of similarities in vascular system and female gametophyte
-tolerant to atmospheric pollution
-Ex: ginkgo biloba= "maidenhair tree"
-most abundant gymnosperms
-Ex: pines, firs, spruces, larch, cypress, jupiter
-nutricionally dependenet on sporophyte generation
protective layers of ovule
delivers sperm cell to egg
-produced by microsporangium
No Vascular System
Rely on diffusion --> Must diffuse everything they pick up
actively transport things throughout plant
stigma + style + ovary
anther + filament
Floral organization in which the sepals, petals, and stamens are attached to the receptacle at the base of the ovary, which is superior (that is, free from the calyx).
all the other parts are attached below the ovary
Floral organization in which the sepals, petals, and stamens apparently grow from the top of the ovary, which is inferior. (that is, completely or partially attached to the calyx).
top of the flowering stem
(2 Developmental Achievements of) Seed Plants
1. free water is no longer necessary for sexual repro to occur
2. the embryonic plant has been provided with some stored food reserves and packaged in a protective coat(seed coat)
-ovule is not exposed
-exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp
-flower=multiples of 3
-vascular bundles in stem scattered
-one embryonic leaf
-flower=multiples of 4 or 5
-vascular bundles arranged in a circle
Plants are said to have evolved from an ancestral ______ _____ -- a member of the Phylum Chlorophyta.
Chlorophyll a is the primary photosynthetic ______.
Chlorophyll b, caroteoids, and xanthophylls are ______ ________.
Plants store excess carbohydrates in the form of ______ which is stored in chloroplasts.
Plants have a cell wall that is composed primarily of _______.
Plants exhibit ______ meiosis.