How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

61 terms

The Evolution and Diversity of Plants

STUDY
PLAY
(7 Important Characteristics of) Plants
1. Sporic Meiosis 2.Multicellular 3.Dominant Diploid Sporophyte(except Bryophyte) 4.Photosynthetic 5.Heteromorphic Alternation of Generations 6.Cell Walls=Cellulose 7.Store Excess Carbohydrates as Starch
Cuticle
Waxy covering on plants that minimizes the loss of water
4 Characteristics of Bryophytes
1. Vascular System Not Well Developed 2.Dominant Haploid Generation 3.Need H20 for Sperm Cells to Swim 4.Sporophyte Generation Metabolically Dependent on Gametophyte Generation
Bryophyte Phyla and Descriptions
1.Hepatophyta-Liverworts
2.Anthocerophyta-Hornworts
3.Bryophyta-Mosses
sporophyte
generation begins with fertilization and produces seeds
gametangia
gamete-producing structures located at the top of plant
antheridia
sperm-producing gametangia
-produce a large # of sperm
archegonium
egg-producing gametangia
-produce a single egg
foot
area of attachment to parent gametophyte
seta
stalk
capsule
where meiosis occurs and haploid spores produced
protonema
mature gametophyte
spores
germinate into a filamentous protonema
sporophyte
gives rise to haploid spores thru meiosis
--> multicellular haploid phase
gametophyte (generation)
-produce gametes thru mitosis and differentiation
--multicellular haploid phase
sperm
male gamete
ovum
female gamete
(2 Phyla of) Seedless Vascular (Plants)
1.Lycophyta
2.Pterophyta
Lycophyta
(characteristics and examples?)
-homosporous
-need H20 for sperm to swim
-true leafs and true roots
-well-developed but primitive vasculature
-ex: Club Mosses, ground pines, quillworks
Pterophyta
(characteristics, phylum, examples)
-homosporous
-need H20 for sperm to swim
-well-developed vascular system
-no true roots or leaves--> photoseynthetic stem
-gametangia located on underside
-Phyla: Psilotum=psilophytes, Equisetum=horsetails&scouring rushes
-Ex: whisk ferns, scouring rushes, true ferns
xylem
conduction of H20 and minerals
phloem
conduction of organic minerals
rhizoids
underground stems-horizontal
fronds
leaves-large and divided in2 leaflets
sori
circular structure that consists of sporangia
prothallus
-heart-shaped
-haploid gametophyte generation
rhizoids
anchorage and absorption of minerals
Seed Plants 2 Major Groups
Angiosperm and Gymnosperm
Gymnosperm
(def and phyla?)
Naked Seed
Phylum Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, Coniferophyta
Cycadophyta
cycads superficially resemble palm trees short in stature
Gnetophyta
-Ex: Ephedra, Welwitzchia, Gnetum
-most closely related to angiosperms b/c of similarities in vascular system and female gametophyte
Ginkgophyta
-tolerant to atmospheric pollution
-Ex: ginkgo biloba= "maidenhair tree"
Coniferophyta
-most abundant gymnosperms
-Ex: pines, firs, spruces, larch, cypress, jupiter
-nutricionally dependenet on sporophyte generation
integuments
protective layers of ovule
seed
mature ovule
pollen tube
delivers sperm cell to egg
microspore
-produced by microsporangium
-male gametophyte
No Vascular System
Rely on diffusion --> Must diffuse everything they pick up
vascular system
actively transport things throughout plant
calyx
sepals (collectively)
corolla
petals (collectively)
carpel(pistil)
stigma + style + ovary
stamen
anther + filament
actinomorphic
radially symetric
hypogyny
Floral organization in which the sepals, petals, and stamens are attached to the receptacle at the base of the ovary, which is superior (that is, free from the calyx).
superior
all the other parts are attached below the ovary
zygomorphic
bilaterally symetric
epigyny
Floral organization in which the sepals, petals, and stamens apparently grow from the top of the ovary, which is inferior. (that is, completely or partially attached to the calyx).
receptacle
top of the flowering stem
(2 Developmental Achievements of) Seed Plants
1. free water is no longer necessary for sexual repro to occur
2. the embryonic plant has been provided with some stored food reserves and packaged in a protective coat(seed coat)
(Phylum) Anthophyta
Angiosperms
-ovule is not exposed
stamen
pollen-producing structures
pericarp
fruit wall
-exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp
monocots
-flower=multiples of 3
-parallel veins
-vascular bundles in stem scattered
-one embryonic leaf
dicot
-flower=multiples of 4 or 5
-net-like veins
-vascular bundles arranged in a circle
-2 cotyledon
green alga
Plants are said to have evolved from an ancestral ______ _____ -- a member of the Phylum Chlorophyta.
pigment
Chlorophyll a is the primary photosynthetic ______.
Accesssory pigments
Chlorophyll b, caroteoids, and xanthophylls are ______ ________.
starch
Plants store excess carbohydrates in the form of ______ which is stored in chloroplasts.
cellulose
Plants have a cell wall that is composed primarily of _______.
sporic
Plants exhibit ______ meiosis.