Terms in this set (31)
The water in the Earth's oceans varies in salinity, temperature, depth
How does the water in the Earth's oceans vary?
the measure of the concentration of salts and ions in ocean water; it affects the temperature and density of water
saltwater freezes at lower temperature and has a higher density than freshwater
Saltwater freezes at a ________ temperature and has a __________ density than freshwater.
As you (descend/rise) through ocean water, the temperature (decreases/increases)
The temperature __________ as you travel away from the equator.
sound navigation and ranging, a major advance in ocean-floor mapping
movement of energy through a body of water
most waves form when wind blowing across the surface transmit their energy to the water. The size of the wave depends on the strength of the wind and on the length of time it blows.
How do waves form and change?
highest part of a wave
distance between crests
number of waves that pass a point in a certain amound of time
lowest part of a wave
vertical distance from the crest to the trough; this factor mostly determines wave energy and strength
Near shore, wave height (increases/decreases) and wavelength (increases/decreases)
a wave that forms far below the ocean surface and is usually caused by an earthquake beneath the ocean floor
the movement of sand along a beach - as the waves slow down, they deposit the sand they are carrying on the shallow, underwater slope, forming a long ridge called a sandbar
a rush of water that flows rapidly back to sea through a narrow opening
by eroding the shore in some places and building it up in others
How do waves shape a beach?
a wall of rocks or concrete built outward from to beach to reduce beach erosion
a large stream of moving water that flows through the oceans, they carry water from one place to another
surface currents affect water to a depth of several hundred meters, driven mainly by winds; surface currents warm or cool the air above it and this affects the climate of land near the coast.
How deep do surface currents affect water? affect the climate of land near the coast?
as earth roates, the paths of winds and currents curve. This effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and currents is called ____________; causes currents to curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
largest and most powerful warm surface current in the Atlantic Ocean in North America
the pattern of temperature and precipitation typical of an area over a long period of time
a climate event that occurs every two to seven years in the Pacific Ocean. When it occurs, unusual wind patterns cause a vast sheet of warm water to move east toward South America.
when surface waters in the eastern Pacific are colder than normal this climate event occurs
deep currents are caused by differences in the density of ocean water. When a surface current moves towards the poles, its water temperature decreases and its salinity increases. The water becomes denser and sinks. Then the cold water flows back along the ocean floor as a deep current.
What causes deep currents?
Deep currents move and mix water around the world. They carry cold water from the poles toward the equator. The pattern looks like a conveyor belt, moving water between the oceans.
Describe how deep currents move and mix water around the world - called thermohaline circulation.
surface currents and deep currents
What are the two main types of ocean currents?
the process by which cold water moves from the ocean depths along some coastlines
this causes surface currents
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