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The Policy Based Profession Key Terms ch 1-7
Terms in this set (112)
defined by Schorr (1985); can be designed to appeal to the middle class whether the waiting room is plush or bare and functional; whether appts are insisted on or drop in visits are permitted; whether the agency gives priority to clients who can pay for services; whether the agency has evening and weekend hours or is open only during the day ect ect
assuming large individual responsibility
a common work setting for professionals in many fields has become a private or public bureaucracy rather than a private practice
it's the identification of one occupation over others to be given primary responsibility for the management of social problems. (out of ppt)
occurs when an individual is not fulfilling a role and a social institutions are not providing adequate supports to enable the individual to fulfill the role
US society is rather conservative and firmly believes in the notion of individualism, the social work profession has a strong emphasis on individual role performance due to this.
when an individual is doing everything necessary to fulfill a role and the appropriate social institutions are functioning well enough to support the person's role performance
deal with the aspects of social institutions that fail to support individuals in fulfilling role expectations
social work practice that deals with individuals, families, and small groups
Ppt week 2 slide 9
Essentially the client goes to the professional with a problem, they get a diagnosis from the professional, the client requests a service, the professional gives a treatment, the client provides payment.
Myth of autonomous Practice
the assumption by social work practitioners that their clients are relatively insulted from external policies
stems from the profession's social function
policy based profession
the model of professionalism reflecting occupational reality in the 21st century
a theory that equated autonomy with private practice and that assigned primary importance to the development of practice techniques (pg5); Flexner considered social work deficient in meeting the criteria of professionalization is that of "assuming large individual responsibility"(pg11)
the theoretical position that argues the fact that more and more professionals came to work in traditional bureaucratic organizations causing the question to arose whether this developmentally erodes the very basis of professional autonomy (pg 15 for more clarity)
crucial for an occupation to be recognized as a profession (pg14)
every person occupies a social position is society (ex student); these positions and roles are located within social institutions that support people in their efforts to meet role expectations successfully.
the area of technique, the profession chose to emphasize practice with individuals, families and small groups
(from ppt) Social Work is the Institution in society that deals with the problem of dependency.
"Dependency" occurs when an individual is not adequately fulfilling a role.
"Dependency" also occurs when social institutions are not providing adequate supports to enable an individual to fulfill their role
"Interdependence" occurs when and individual is doing everything they can to fulfill their role, and social institutions are functioning well enough to support the person's role performance
support individuals role performances
attached to social status or position examples are nurturing children, communication info shopping voting ect
everyone occupies a number of these such a mother student and attached to these are roles as mentioned above
chapter 1 overview 1
- Argues that social work students interested in direct practice need to understand social welfare policy because of the role that policy plays in determining the environment in which practitioner and client interact.
chapter 1 overview 2
- Explains reasons for the dominance of micropractice over macropractice.
chapter 1 overview 3
- Presents a triadic policy-based profession model as superior to the market-driven model used historically to discuss the professionalization of social work.
Chapter 1 overview 4
- Provides examples that emphasize the utility of understanding social work as the policy-based profession
involves the broad laws, regulations, or guidedlines that provide the basic framework for the provisions of services and benefits (27)
policy is administrative policy that organization generate to direct and regularize their operations (28)
policy is what happens when individuals such as social workers translate macro- and mezzolevel policy into actual service to clients (28)
many times religious agencies; have policies that affect social workers and their clients and must be understood if social workers are to comprehend their working environments fully (25)
implies choice, that is, decision-making possibilities within a range of feasible alternatives (22)
as taught in the traditional academic disciplines is central to the method, but additional, generally interpersonal, skills are also included that are usually not central to these other fields (pg25) [only good thing I could find in chp2 chp 3 has more info]
Jansson (1994) identifies 4 basic policy practice skills needed by social workers: evaluate social problems, develop policy proposals, analyze the severity of specific problems, identify barriers to policy implementation, and develop strategies for assessing programs (25-26)
increasing number of services are provided by profit making sector; day care; disabled adults and elderly, residential and foster care for children ect... (25)
there is a tendency to define policy only as public policy, the fully understand the context in which they practice, social workers need to understand the policies of all three sectors of the social welfare system and the interactions among them (27)
when social policy is used in a philosophical sense, the term refers to the collective struggle to seek enduring social solutions to social problems and conveys a meaning almost the opposite of this term. When used in this sense (i guess rugged individualism) social policy is equated with the struggle for equality in social and economic life (24)
when social policy is used in a philosophical sense, the term refers to the collective struggle to seek enduring social solutions to social problems and conveys a meaning almost the opposite of rugged individualism (24) so opposite of previous term. (check it out. it's worded weird)
Social work curriculum
social welfare policy refers to a specific area of the professional social work curriculum;accrediting body of social work programs is the council on social work education (CSWE) the educational policy and accreditation standards of CSWE under the heading "engage in policy in policy practice to advance social and economic well being to deliver effective social work services reads"
Social work practitioners understand that policy affects service delivery, and they actively engage in policy practice. Social workers know the history and current structures of social policies and services; the role of policy in service delivery and the role of practice in police development . Social workers:
Analyze, formulate, and advocate for policies that advance social well being
collaborate with colleagues and clients for effective policy action (25)
defined as the institution in society that deals with the problem of dependency (22)
Social welfare policy
principals, guidelines, or procedures that serve the purpose of maximizing uniformity in decision making regarding the problem of dependency in our society
political scientist Michael Lipsky refers to social workers as street level bureaucrats who make policy in two related respects. They exercise wide discretion in decisions about citizens with whom they interact. Then, when taken in concert, their individual actions add up to agency behavior.
a recent development, one that may or may not turn out to be a long term definitional problem, is the advocacy by some in the policy science to eschew the term welfare and substitute it with the term well beining (22)
Chap 2 Overview 1
- Explains the multiple meanings associated with social policy and how social welfare policy has a more limited meaning within the broader understanding of social policy.
chapt 2 overview 2
- Describes the factors complicating the meaning of social welfare policy and the skills required for effective policy practice.
chap 2 overview 3
- Explains the multiple organizational contexts (government, private nonprofit, and private for profit sectors) in which social welfare policy in encountered
chap 2 overview 4
- Explains the multiple levels (macro, mezzo, and micro) at which social welfare policy needs to be understood by social work practitioners.
credited with allowing the recipient to maintain some sense of choice and control, a feature held to be important both in a democracy and a market economy
involves a more complex,bureaucracy, increasing the distance between clients and administrators.
developed by social workers Neil Gilbert, Paul Terrell and Harry Specht. A systematic process of looking at the options available to planners for dealing with a social welfare problem
Commercialization of services
as voluntary agencies have witnessed a decline in contributions as a portion of their resources, they have turned more and more to what has been called the "commercialization" of their financial base, charging more fees for services and even selling products (47)
involves systematically comparing policies across two or more settings. most common form is cross- national analysis: the policy in one nation is compared with policies of other nations regarding the same problem.
defines policy as what currently exists, but the historical orientation views policy as patterns of behavior by the state and private groups extending over a long period of time
or less-coordinated systems generally increase autonomy and diversity in mission and approach and may lead to a competition among programs that may increase quality
can be developed into content, choice, comparative, and historical analysis
a common and important type of social welfare policy analysis. There are sharp differences between value systems, ethical policy evaluations are often controversial (pg 52)
intended to judge social welfare policy rather than simply describing or explaining social welfare policy
advantage attributed to benefits in kind is the ability to ensure that the provisions will be used exactly as intended; can be seen as undermining an individuals dignity and sense of responsibility
similar to content analysis in looking at the content of a social welfare policy in detail. It goes beyond content analyisis however by assessing a policy's internal rigor and consistency, generally evaluates a policy in terms of three possible dimensions-singly or in combination-
pg 43 right before delivery structure. Can't define.
a key to degining and dealing with the term policy analysis is the recognition that it is broad and general. It is analogous to the therm research which we all realize means many different things depending on how it is used by different people in different context (pg 36)
points to political-administrative procedures and initiatives that allow to discover or test novel instruments of problem-solving and thereby propel broader-based policy innovation or institutional adaptation in a given polity, economy or society. (googled)
can't find in chapter?
less concerned with policy content than with how a policy comes into being. The focus of this analytic approach is on the interactions of the many political actors, which include public officials, bureaucrats, media, professional associates, and special interests groups representing those likely to be affected either positively or negatively by a policy (48)
two parts effectiveness evaluations and efficiency evaluations. Encompass a wide range of research methodology and a huge literature has developed related to both the methods and the politics of evaluations
allocation of benefits based on individual economic need, generally determined through an income test those below a certain income level are eligible to receive benifits (40)
even when goals are consistent and there is a clear logical relationship between ends and means, public policies may have unintended consequences that can be worse than the original problem. (50 for example)
benifits that are made available to an entire population as a social right, assumes all citizens are at risk at some point (39)
social workers are struggling with the decision over voluntary versus mandatory services in a number of areas. for example, should we force "street people" to enter shelters or insist that emotionally withdrawn nursing home residents join in the daily crafts class? (43)
No concepts for 4!
Delineation of policy
Social Problem Analysis
to clearly and completely identify and define the problem the policy addresses (pg 79)
covered on pages 83 and 84
Population affected by the problem
Theory of Human Behavior
Achievement and Success
competitive society people who don't measure up in the competition are looked down on (pg 84)
americans view the world in moral terms- right and wrong, good and bad, ethical and unethical, social welfare benefits are often suspected of having engaged in behavior that is morally bad or of having nor engaged in behavior that is morally good (84)
US is an acquisitive and materialistic culture. Statement really requires no more justification
constitutes a steady theme throughout US history; yet few other value complexes are more subject to strain in modern times; we express strong support for the idea of equality as a philiosphical principle, but our society is characterized by a high degree of inequality and most americans believe this is as it should be (86)
Science and Secular Rationality
Americans have great faith that the methods of science will eventually solve all or nearly all problems of living in our physical and social world. We believe that even the seemingly intractable social problems addressed by social welfare policies will eventually succumb to the onslaught of scientific method.
has one unique dimension: a sense of missionary zeal to spread US economic and governmental instituions thought the world, generally by nonmilitary means. (87)
sometimes problematic in social welfare policy. everything is done by majority rule, people who are not part of the majority can suffer some harsh consequences as a result of never getting their way.
Contradictions in U.S. Value System
88-89 too much ot type
89-90 WHOLE SECTION
extremely technical and complex, generally requiring a competence in higher level mathematics; the economic analysis section of a practitioner policy analysis need not be so complex
concerned with aggregate economic performance. Looks at questions of output, income, inflation, and unemployment.
consists of all the outcomes or benefits that must be sacrificed if that particular policy is adopted rather than an alternative policy
Culture of poverty
a social theory that expands on the cycle of poverty. It attracted academic and policy attention in the 1960s, survived harsh academic criticism
assistance was provided to people only through institutions such as poorhouses, orphanages, mental hospitals, schools for the deaf and blind, and so forth
borrowed from the powerful and popular industrial insurance movement which was successfully lobbying for worker's compensation, unemployment insurance, and retirement programs as measures to insure workers against the risks ofindustrial employment
Human Capital Strategies
1960's the argument was advanced that a more direct approach to poverty was called for. Said that people were poor because they could not get good jobs, and they could not get good jobs because they did not possess valuable skills
attempted to empower individuals and neighborhoods. based on a blocked opportunity thesis that attributed poverty to environmental variables (107)
Level of need
what the state determines as the min amount families of various sizes need to survive
provided direct cash benefits to people was frowned on because it was believed to encourage indolence and dependency
recipients who remain on assistance for 8 or more years. The group we usually picture when discussing public welfare.
is an Employment Program designed to help adults receiving CalWORKs cash aid prepare for work and find a job. If necessary, you can improve your job skills or learn new skills to help you get a job in today's workforce
supports individuals with disabilities to get and keep paid employment or to operate their own business. (googled)
efer to complex chains of events which reinforce themselves through a feedback loop. A virtuous circle has favorable results, while a vicious circle has detrimental results. (googled , got lazy sorry)
Committee on Economic Security
Roosevelt needed to maintain political support and keep control of the reform agenda, in june 1934 he responded to political pressures and to the county's continued econmic distress by announcing to congress his intent to find a sound means for providing "securiting against several of the great disturbing factors in life-especially those which relate to unemployment and old age" These are why he created the CES
having a right (google couldn't find exactly in book)
giving assistance based on what people had put into the system
Old-age assistance program
Cost of Living Adjustment
based on the assumption that wages, and concomitant payroll taxes, would continue to rise
assisting people based on their actual need
also referred to as civil rights, are rights that are defined by the laws of the place in which they are granted to citizens (google)
Income -based entitlement
? I'm guessing it's explanatory. Sorry.
a concentrated type of power is exercised through various citizen and professional organizations (elderly) the strongest is the AARP
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