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PRE-AP BIOLOGY UNIT THREE REVIEW
Terms in this set (58)
What color does any given pigment appear in a light absorbing compound?
It appears whatever wavelength (or combination of wavelengths) that it reflects.
Why do plants appear green?
Plants appear green because they reflect the wavelength of light that is interpreted as green in our brain.
Why do things appear black no lights are present?
Everything appears black because no light is arriving to your eyes!
At which location does the light reaction occur and what is the structure's name?
The light reaction occurs on and within the thylakoid.
What colors of light typically power the process of photosynthesis?
Red and blue
Why to most photosynthetic organisms appear green?
They are absorbing the energy from red and blue wavelengths of light and reflecting the green wavelength of light.
What would happen if you gave a green plant green light only?
If we take a plant submerged in water and apply white light to it, what might be evidence that the light reaction is occurring?
The major product of the light reaction is oxygen (O2).
What are the two products of the light reaction that are used in the Calvin cycle?
NADPH and ATP
What is NADPH made from?
made from NADP+, 2 e-, and H+ put together via NADP+ Reductase
What is the major product of the Calvin cycle?
A carbohydrate/sugar (glucose)
At which location does the Calvin cycle occur and what is the area's name?
The Calvin cycle occurs at the stroma.
What organelle is responsible for the two parts of photosynthesis?
The major reactant for the Calvin cycle is carbon dioxide. From where do photosynthetic autotrophs typically receive this substance?
Write out the balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis.
6 CO2 + 6H2O >>>C6H1206 + 6O2
CARBON DIOXIDE + WATER >>>LIGHT ENERGY FROM SUN>>> GLUCOSE + OXYGEN
What does the word glycolysis mean?
The splitting (lysis) of a sugar (glyco)
What process (that creates a toxic byproduct) follows glycolysis when an organism has no useable oxygen left?
Casi produces 3.07 grams of CO2 over the course of 2 hours of conditioning and Jill produces 3.86 grams of CO2. Which of the two girls made more ATP?
Jill did! The more carbon dioxide that is produced, the more water and ATP that is also produced!
Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?
How much ATP is produced in this step of cellular respiration?
2 (net) ATP
If glycolysis technically makes 4 ATP in glycolysis, why are only 2 (net) ATP produced?
Two of the four were ATP molecules that were invested to get the process started...so we end up with two more than we started with.
Describe what you know about a heterotrophic unicellular eukaryote that is living in an anaerobic environment.
It is Heterotrophic, Unicellular,Eukaryotic, and lives in an Anaerobic environment.
feeds on other things
composed of one cell
has a true nucleus (not a bacterium)
an environment that has no oxygen
What reactant is required for cellular respiration to proceed to the Krebs cycle?
When does fermentation occur?
When oxygen is not present
What major product is made during the Krebs cycle that leaves the cell?
How does carbon dioxide leave the cell in the Krebs cycle?
It passively diffuses out of the mitochondria and cell to the cardiovascular system (in animals) where it is transported to the lungs to be released into the atmosphere.
Where does the Krebs cycle take place
The inner-membrane space (matrix) is where the Krebs cycle occurs.
How much ATP is produced per glucose in the
1 ATP per pyruvate, so 2 ATP per glucose.
What products of the Krebs cycle are used in the next step of cellular respiration (electron transport chain)?
What do FADH2, NADH carry in the electron transport chain?
The electrons necessary to power the production of ATP
Write the balanced equation for cellular respiration.
6 O2 + C2 H12 O6 >>> 6 CO2 + 6 H2 O + energy
Where s energy stored?
How is energ given off?
What is the standard and maximum amount of ATP made during aerobic cellular respiration?
Where does ATP come from during aerobic cellular respiration?
2 from Glycolysis
2 from Krebs
32-34 from Electron transport chain
In what phase of photosynthesis is an electron transport chain utilized?
The light-dependent reaction
Where does the ETC occur in the cell?
ETC occurs ON the inner membrane
How many ATP are produced ON the inner membrane?
What is need for a ETC to make ATP?
A concentration gradient across a membrane
What is Chemiosmosis?
the movement of ions from high concentration to low concentration.
In the mitochondria, What ion is moving AND what enzyme is it powering?
H+ (protons) are moving from the inter-membrane space back into the matrix (inner-membrane space) which power ATP synthase.
What happens in the first step of the electron transport chain's operation?
Electrons are transported from protein to protein.
What happens in the second step of the electron transport chain's operation?
The movement of electrons powers certain proteins to actively transport hydrogen (H+) a certain direction, creating a concentration gradient. (we call these proteins proton pumps)
What is a proton pump?
The concentrated gradient of proteins produced in the second step of the electron transport chain.
What happens in the third step of the electron transport chain's operation?
Protons passively diffuse back to where they were pumped from through a protein called ATP Synthase.
What happens in the fourth step of the electron transport chain's operation?
ATP synthase is powered by the kinetic energy of the protons and uses such energy to bind ADP and Pi together to form ATP.
What color(s) of light are typically responsible for photosynthesis?
Blue and Red; green is reflected. This is why most plants appear green!
What is the site of the light reaction of photosynthesis and what does it make?
What is the site of the Calvin Cycle and what does it make?
What are the three stages of cellular respiration?
Where does each stage of cellular respiration occur within the cell?
How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related?
What occurs in place of the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) if oxygen is not present? Fermentation.
What is the balanced equation for cellular respiration (think about what we eat, what we breathe in/out)?
6 O2 + C6H12O6 --> 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + heat + freed energy (ATP)
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