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he was the head librarian at Alexandria and computed the earth's circumference

George Perkins Marsh

he was the first geographer to consider man's imact on the enviroment


the map projection most seen in geography books and national geographic


what map would one use to navigate the elevation of a mountain hike?

cognitive map

If one drew a map on a paper of their route from home to work, what kind of map would it be?


describing a place based on its relationship with other, nearby places explains the term

the first law of geography

the further apart two places are, the less likely interaction will take place

enviromental determinism

human behavior and potential is based on enviromental conditions

pidgin language

the melding of two languages


what is the only continent that does not have a country with english as a major language


a religion that attempts to win converts and considers its faith applicable to all


considered the most important person for spreading the christianity

charter group

the first major ethnic group to establish cultural norms in an area


a person changing their sex is dealing with the geographical term


the common scene of Mcdonalds and Lowe's , as well as other chain buisnesses is an example of

total fertility rate

the average number of children a woman will have during her child bearing years

carrying capacity

refers to the amount of people an area can handle w/o straining its resources

Thomas Malthus theory

felt that population growth will outgrow ability to feed that population

channalized migration

the typical and frequently used immagration route between places

sub-sahara africa

where do geographers think the next population explosion will happen

post-modern architecture

know for the use of different types of building material and bright colors

beax arts

the melding of older and newer architectural styles

rank-size rule

the idea that a country's second city had half the population of its largest city

gateway city

a city that serves as a major port of entry for both people and goods

a church

a islamic city does not have a what

lower class resident area

according to the hoyt sector model, the factory and industry section tends to be found admist what

rural to urban

major movement of urbanization as seen today

primate city

a city that has that vast majority of a country's population

surrounding defense walls

as seen in medival times in european cities

stationary agricilture

what lead to the growth of cities

economic union

the european union is an example of what kind of alliance


taking over another country by force

rimland theory

the idea that to be strong state requires being on the coast line with a strong navy


a country that is completely surrounded by other countries


states that have very strong state or provincial governments and weak federal government

forward thrust capital

a capital city created to develop an empty part of the country away from the core


a dispute that argues over natural material


which shape of countries have enclaves of seperated countries

statelessness nation

a nation w/o a place to call their own

unitary states

little or no fractions or differences among the people


where did the modern city idea stem from


a government based on religion

economic expansion

defined as any growth, expansion and/or utilization of natural and previously untapped resources.

core periphery model

a way measuring countries based on their dependence on other countries.


regions or countries of the world where there is a concentration of wealth, innovation and technology.


regions or countries are at the low end on the economic developed scale and are characterized by low per capita incomes and low standards of living. These regions include Africa (except South Africa), Asia and portions of South America.


regions or countries that are newly industrialized with rising standards of living. This group includes Brazil, Chile, China, India and Indonesia.

rostows stage #1

dominated by primary economic activities

rostows stage #2

ground work for economic expansion is in place, like commercial agriculture

rowstows stage #3

influx of foreign investment

rowstows stage #4

manufacturing and commercial base in established

rowstows stage #5

large-scale mass consumption and high per capita incomes


the value of all goods and services produced within a country's borders during a given period of time.


the value of all goods and services, including income from overseas, produced by citizens of a particular country during a given period of time.


the value of the GDP plus the income received from foreign investments.


a link between currency exchange rates to the prices paid for goods and services in any two countries. This is highlighted by the Economist magazine that periodically highlights this term with what it calls the McDonalds's index, showing PPP by way of a Big Mac.


a method the UN uses to measure development in terms of human welfare rather than economic performance.

Subsequence economies

goods and services for the creator and his/her family.

commercial economies

goods and services are created to make a profit.

planned economies

the government makes all decisions regarding products, its supply and the price of such goods and services.

primary economy system

involve the extraction or harvesting of resources. such as fishing, mining...

fertile crescent

ask miller

extensive agriculture

characterized by large farms but a small work force as seen left on this farm in the Ukraine. does not use much machinary

intensive agriculture

characterized by smaller plots but larger labor force. This is generally done to produce more crops for a larger population with less technological help such as seen right in the Gansu Province, China. uses more machinary

the green revolution

when they started trying to fatten animals by add in chemicals. negatives: it works in one area but not the other

mixed crops

involves a variety of crop farming including fruits and vegetables and is heavily sold in areas whose climates do not support the growth of such crops.

specialty crops

includes foods that are prevalent in certain areas such as the growth of grapes, avocados and olives in the Mediterranean region, California, eastern Australia, Chile (olive plantation seen left) and western Europe.

luxury crops

refer to the growing of foods that are not essential to everyday life such as bananas, cocoa, pineapples, flowers and coffee. Such production is normally controlled by a foreign agribusiness.

the von thunen model

that the city is set in the order from buisness, dairy, forest, farming, raching. it goes by what is parishable and what is not in order form how far it is from the city


plants or animals whose DNA has been genetically altered.


when you can go anywhere and catch fish


when you fish in a contained enviroment

dispersed settlement

like this one in Garth, Wales (left) are typified by large farms and relative isolation from neighbors.

nucleated settlements

refer to a small group of families living together with farms all around like this one (right) outside of Felindre, Wales

long lot surveying

meant to give each household equal access to nearby water like these farms in south Louisiana (left).

metes and bounds

a common surveying feature in the eastern portions of the United States.

township and range surveying

a grid (block) system meant to organize settlements evenly and equally.

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