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Terms in this set (64)
________ are lipids that store energy and are typically composed of multiple building blocks containing three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule.
Which type of molecule makes up the double layer of a cell membrane?
A ___________ chain is a sequence of amino acids that is the foundation for the basic structure of a protein.
One of the monosaccharides is a building block of a plant's cell wall. It is ________.
In humans, excess blood glucose is stored in the liver and in muscle tissue in the form of glycogen. Glycogen is a long chain of glucose molecules bonded together. Because of this, glycogen is called a _____________________.
___________ are a large and varied groups of molecules that are usually not soluble in water.
Reusable, complex proteins that promote chemical reactions within cells are called?
A macromolecule made up of mainly carbon and hydrogen atoms that is primarily used for energy storage and in cell membranes.
This is the foundation for DNA replication, the rule that states the purine adenine (A) always pairs with the pyrimidine thymine (T) and the pyrimidine cytosine (C) always pairs with the purine guanine (G).
Base Pair Rule
Energy stored in chemical bonds of molecules.
This is a compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; it is used by cells to store and release energy. Sugars are made by chloroplasts through photosynthesis and consumed by mitochondria through cell respiration.
A single stranded nucleic acid that plays a role in protein synthesis.
This is a substance used to identify the presence of protein. It is a blue solution that changes to pink-purple in the presence of proteins.
A macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, which is used by the body for growth and repair.
This is a macromolecule that holds cell information in a coded form. Made of sugar, phosphate and nitrogen-containing bases.
These are complex proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the amount of energy needed to get the reaction started.
Salivary amylase is an enzyme found in the mouth. It breaks down starch into sugars.
Why will salivary amylase NOT break down proteins?
Proteins don't fit into the active site of the amylase enzyme.
In an experiment, a student mixed a substrate and an enzyme. What complex structure does this make?
This is the energy needed by a system to initiate a process.
Process requiring energy for the movement of particles across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient.
This is the main energy storage and transfer molecule in the cell.
This is the process of cell reproduction where cell splits into two daughter cells.
A thin, flexible, semipermeable barrier around the cell which regulates what enters and leaves the cell
States that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and cells come from pre-existing cells.
This is a green pigment in chloroplasts that traps light energy from the sun.
This is the unequal distribution of ions across a cell membrane.
This is the last part of the cell cycle. This is process in which the cytoplasm is divided between the two new daughter cells.
This is a homogeneous, generally clear jelly-like material that fills cells.
This is a scaffolding of protein fibers that help a cell keep its shape, and assist cell division and cell movement.
These are cells which have become modified and specialized within an organism.
This is a condition or illness that prevents the body or mind from working normally.
This holds an organisms hereditary information.
This is the result of fertilization, in the early stages of growth and development.
This is the process where cells engulf material from outside their cell membranes.
This is a membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells that is the production and processing center of proteins and some lipids.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
This organelle serves to process and package lipids and proteins in the cell.
This is a regulation of the internal environment of an organism.
A solution that causes a cell to shrink because of the high concentration of solute in the solution surrounding the cell.
A solution that causes a cell to swell because of osmosis.
When the concentration of solute and solvent are equal on both sides of the membrane.
This is a procedure that is performed not in a living organism but in a controlled environment, like a test tube or Petri dish.
This is a modification of the lock and key model that suggests the active site of an enzyme is continually reshaped by interactions with the substrate until the substrate is completely bound and the chemical reaction occurs.
This is one explanation of enzyme specificity that states an enzyme and its substrate possess specific complementary geometric shapes that fit exactly into one another.
Lock and Key
This is a type of protein found in the cell membrane, which regulates the coming and going of substances into or out of the cell.
An organelle found in most eukaryotic cells described as "cellular power plants", because their primary function is to convert organic materials into energy in the form of ATP
The process of nuclear division in cells that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell.
Organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. Most life that can be seen with the naked eye is this.
The structure that houses the cells genetic information.
Nucleus (Biology Term)
This is any functional structure within the confines of a cell; literally a. "small organ;" it usually has a membrane-based structure
This is a process in which water moves through a membrane, from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
A non-energy requiring process that moves materials across a cell membrane with the concentration gradient.
These are disease-causing cells or organisms.
This is the scale used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is. This affects the enzymes within living systems.
This is found in cell membranes and help protect the cell or organelles by allowing/not allowing molecules to enter.
This kind of cell has a large central vacuole and a cell wall.
These are organisms where the genetic material is not bound by a nucleus. They are usually unicellular.
This organelle synthesizes proteins.
This is a fat, most often of animal origin, that is solid at room temperature and whose fatty acid chains cannot incorporate additional hydrogen atoms.
This is an active transport mechanism by which cells pump sodium and potassium ions against the concentration gradient.
Sodium Potassium Pump
This is an undifferentiated cell whose \"job\" within the organism is yet to be determined.
This is the material or substance on which an enzyme acts.
This is a lipid (fat) which contains one or more carbon-carbon double bonds and tends to be plant-based.
A microscopic parasite that infects cells in biological organisms. They reproduce only by invading and controlling other cells as they lack the cellular machinery for self-reproduction.
Recommended textbook explanations
Campbell Biology: Concepts and Connections
Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, Jean L. Dickey, Kelly A. Hogan, Martha R. Taylor
Biology: Reading and Study Workbook A
Prentice Hall Biology (California)
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Study Guide for Campbell Biology
Campbell, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
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