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Humanities- Period 3: part 1: History
Terms in this set (61)
Created in the early 7th century:Created in an area of bedouin tribes: tribes originally polytheistic and patriarchal, due to trade, influenced by Judaism and Christianity.
Prophet of Islam: Born in 570 C.E.:Raised by uncle, was part of bedouin tribe and participated in trade.: 595 C.E. marries former employer Khadijaha. 610 C.E.: Sees vision of Gabriel. Died 632 C.E.
Believe Ali was true Successor of Muhammad.
Pray five times a day toward Mecca.
Pray after sunsets.
Teachings can be updated based on new interpretations by new clerics.
Followers of 12 Imams.
Believe Abu Bakar was true successor of Muhammad.
Pray 5 times a day.
Pray ONCE sunsets.
More codified system.
Don't see 12 imams as successors.
Mecca and Medina
Medina- City where Muhammad was born and was kicked out because the people were afraid his teachings would disrupt trade.
Mecca- IMPORTANT CITY FOR ISLAM. Muslims to make Hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca once in their life. Muhammad went to Medina to preach Islam. Caused tension between Medina and Mecca.
661-750 C.E.: Capitol in Damascus, Syria.
Stretched from central Asia to the bottom half of Spain.
First of four rightly guided Caliphs.
Unified bedoun tribes in Riddah wars.
Invaded land for treasures and LAND (omg who could have guessed that)
Common cause for the strength of Islam.
Stopped wars between tribes.
Glorify new religion.
Byzantine Empire- Orthodox Christians who persecuted copts and nestorians in Egypt.
Women of the Umayyads
Marriage very important
No cheating on spouse
Had a say in who they married
Had legal rights to marriage and divorce
Had dowery, women got all of it in divorce.
Founded by Abu al-Abbas.
No class distinction.
Islam now universal faith.
Didn't actively conquer, expanded through conversion.
Caliph- Head of everything.
Didn't show any favor towards military aristocracy.
High point in Abbasid era
not a good time for women, lots of herems.
Women in Abbasid era
Herems and veils became twin characteristics of mens superiority of women.
Women celebrated for advancement of sons
Abbasid wealth provided for concubines.
African Civilizations (overview)
Extremely diverse/ not unified.
Political unity hard because of terrain.
Bantu primary language spoken.
Animistic and Polytheistic.
Majority of Africa in isolation even after Islam was introduced.
African Civilizations (overview2)
Small communities politically organized
Lack concentration of power: Authority held by families.
Weakness of stateless societies:No tax collection or efficient military.
African Civ's economies
N. Africa-Integrated into world Econ by Islamic trade routes.
Other parts of Africa- Participate in Agriculture and iron working.
Trading raw materials for manufactured goods.
Almoravids vs. Almohads
Reforming Berbers from western sahara, powerful.
Almohads beat Almoravids.
first of great trading empires.
Traded salt and gold.
10th century rulers convert to Islam.
Almoravids invade Ghana.
Created a centralized government.
Econ. is agriculture.
Continue gold trade.
Expands north and east.
Founder of Mali- Sundiada
Jenne and Timbuktu-
Timbuktu had a university and a library.
1324-goes on hajj to Mecca
Successor of Sundiada
Aligns self with rich islamic leaders.
Brings back scholars and architects.
Destroys Mali Economy.
Independent from Mali in 1370
Founded by Sunni, Ali.
Moroccans take over due to Songhai not being muslim enough.
Influence of Islam in Africa
Islam provided universal faith.
Rulers forced power through ideology
Sudan society matriarchal, did not seclude women.
Slavery and slave trade was prevalent from Muslim influence.
Coasts enable E. Africa connecting to Indian ocean.
Islamized by posts by 13th century.
Large cities- Kilwa, Mogadishu, Mombasa.
Exported goods for Indian and Islamic and Chinese goods.
Swahili language- Bantu+Arabic
Most people stayed polytheistic and animistic.
Agriculture society, Prominent in 15th century
Gender division of labor
family based villages
Largest site- Mbanza Kongo
Great Zimbabwe- largest city site
Dominated gold sources and trade with coastal ports.
Christianity in Africa
Christian states in N. Africa, Ethiopia, and Egypt.
Egyptian Christians, wealthy and independent.
Nubians Resisted Muslim incursions (9th century to 13th century)
Ethiopia continues to be Christianity.
Christianity comes later with Europeans.
Things to remember - Africa
Introduction of Islam created song trade networks.
Most of Africa developed WITHOUT Islam influence.
Religions may not have been adopted but influenced the area politically and economically.
E. Roman empire= Byzantine
Trade VERY important
Constantinople very wealthy
Thought of themselves as Romans
Center of learning for Byzantine empire.
Taught medicine philosophy, greek/latin grammar, geometry.
Official language- Latin.
Justinian most famous emperor.
Unified codes of law.
Basis for criminal justice/Womens rights/marriage/slavery/property laws.
Law code one of most important legacies of Byzantine.
Served as laws for next 900 years.(whoa)
Head of church and empire.
Married to Theodora.
Built hospitals, churches,aqueducts,baths,schools, and courts.
The Great Schism
Division of christianity.
Rome= Roman Catholic
Byzantine=E. Orthodox empire.
Roman Catholic- Priest cannot marry, Pope.
E. Orthodox- Priests can marry, Patriarch.
Did not like that people were using icons to help with worshipping god.
Called it idol worship.
Emperor Leo III has all icons destroyed.
Iconoclasts- People who wanted icons gone.
500 C.E.-1500 C.E.
Early Middle Ages:500 C.E.-1100 C.E.
Late Middle Ages:1300 C.E.-1500 C.E.
500 C.E.-800 C.E.- barbarian tribes ravaging Europe begin to settle down.
"Big civilized group"
one of most important "barbarian" tribes
Clovis Converted to Christianity, so Franks converted to christianity. Also kind of centralized Franks under his rule.
Martel defeated muslims.
Defeated them at Battle of Tours, pushed Moores into Spain.
or Pippin- "The short or The younger"
gave land to the pope and created papalstates.
At Christmas mass in 800, crowned emperor of romans, starting the Holy Roman Empire (HRE)
Verdict of Verdun- Kills 4500 pagan worshippers.
Kings give lord land to rule over, people come in contact with lords more so lords become more powerful.
Everything run on local level
land given to a vassal to take care of and rule.
The person who receives a fief.
Set up government departments, Parliament of Paris.
Danes from Denmark begin fighting Anglo Saxons .
Everyone is fighting.
Alfred the Great
Defeated the Danes.
Wanted monks to be retaught latin.
Had englands history written down.
Called Anglo-Saxon chronicles.
Reformed legal system and encouraged education.
William the conquerer
Won at Battle of Hastings over english crown.
Alters feudal system to where lords swear allegiance to the king.
Henry the first
Williams 4th son
Created financial office that handles the kingdoms money.
Created traveling judges
Judges make kings law universal.
Henry the Second
Created a national army
Makes lords pay money to him
Created circuit judges- judges that stayed in one area
Had juries that decided if a case went to trial or not.
Married Eleanor of Aquitaine
Now owns a piece of France and is now a vassal to the kind go France.
Signs the Magna Carta
Magna Carta shows that there is no one who is above the law, even the king.
Henry the third
Nobles revolt in mid 1200's
Great council created- eventually becomes parliament.
Otto the First
First emperor to call himself a holy roman emperor.
Emperors control the selection of the pope.
Henry the fourth and Pope Gregory the seventh
Struggled over whether a layman could appoint a bishop.
Concord of Worms- decided both sides have a say.
Fredrick the first
Wanted to take over northern Italy
City states bonded together to form he Lombard league and defeated Fredrick.
Derivative from latin word "cross"
Called for by Pope Urban II
Seljuk turks have taken over holy land (Jerusalem)
Forbid people to come into Jerusalem for Christian pilgrimage.
Europeans take over Jerusalem after 3 years of fighting.
Saladin lead against crusaders
1144 C.E.- Edessa taken over by Seljuk turks.
Crusaders defeated and Jerusalem taken over by Saladin.
Crusaders lead by Philip the second, Fredrick the first, and Richard the lionhearted
Fought for three years.
Came to truce and Jerusalem stayed under muslim rule, people could come in and out.
Reached Constantinople and looted it.
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