Biology 2-4 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes

chemical reaction
a process that changes, or transforms one set of chemicals into another
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
the elements or compunds produced by a chemical reactoin
chemical bonds, compounds
chemical reactions involve changes in the ________ ______ that join atoms in ___________
release energy
Chemical reactions that ______ ______ often occur on their own or spontaniously
source of energy
chemical reactions that absorb energy will not occur without a _______________
activation energy
the energy that is needed to get a chemical reaction started
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy
lowering, activation energy
catalysts work by _________ a chemical reaction's ________ ______
proteins that act as biological catalysts
speed up, cells
enzymes _____ ___ chemical reactions that take place in ____
the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
temperature, pH level, regulatory mollecules
3 factors that can effent the activity of enzymes
chemical transformations
mass & energy and chemical reactions are conserved during _________ ________
chemical bonds, formed, broken
energy is released or absorbed whenever ________ _____ are either ______ or _______
matter, energy
______ and ______ are conserved in chemical reactions
source of energy
every living organism needs a __________ to carry out chemical reactions
slow, activation energies, high, catalysts
some chemical reactions that make life possible are too ____ or have ______ ______ that are too ____ to make them practical for living tissue, so are nade possible by a process that cells use involving ______.
proteins, biological catalysts
enzymes are ______ that act as _________ ________
enzymes work by _____ the activation energies
reactants, bonds break, bonds form
for a chemical reaction to occur, the _______ must collide with enough energy so that the existing ______ ______ and new ______ ______
enymes provide a site where _______ can be brought together to react
active site
the site on the enzyme where the substrates bind to each other
controlling chemical pathways, making materials that cells need, releasing energy, transferring information
the four essential roles that enzymes play
because enzymes are ________ for chemical reactions, they can be effected by any variable that influences a chemical reaction
reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
activation energy
the energy that is required to start a chemical reaction
energy absorbing reactions
a chemical reaction where the products have more energy than the reactions
energy releasing reactions
a chemical reaction where the products have less energy than the reactions