Human Growth and Development

Test one (simplified)
Psychoanalytic Theory
(Current issues are a result of our childhood experiences. How you are is a result of your childhood.)
Erikson's Psycosocial stages- trust vs. mistrust
*(Attending to needs causes trust) Infancy

Characteristics of this stage (Come to trust or mistrust themselves and others) Favored outcome (Develop trust in self, parents, and the world)
Erikson's Psycosocial stages- Autonomy vs. shame & doubt
*(2-3 years old- Independence -Parents should allow child to try things out)

Characteristics of this stage (With increased mobility, decide whether to assert their will) Favored outcome (Develop sense of self-control without loss of self esteem)
Erikson's Psycosocial stages- Industry vs. inferiority
*(Try things out rollplaying what they have seen others do.)

Characteristics of this stage (Are curious about how things are made and how they work) Favored outcome (Develop a sense of mastery and competence)
Another name for Behavioral Theory
Learning Theory
Operant conditioning
A type of learning in which the consequences of a behavior alter the strength of the behavior.
Humanistic Psychology
*(No matter whats happened in the past, you are in control of where you go good or bad)
Cognitive learning
*(Learns how to respond to something he/she had not observed someone elses response to.)
Ecological theory
Uri Bronfenbrenner
*(individual infulenced by the environmentand what is happening around them.)
Sociocultural theory
*(human development has a hystorical characteristic- Where and when a person grows up influenced)
Kagan's studies on timidity indicated what things?
*Shy Bio parents more likely to have shy kids
*Shyness in childhood effects course of adult life
*researchers can detect physical responses in shy subjects to mildly stressful situations
shy kids more upset by stimulus
Two female Sex Hormones
Estrogen and progesterone
Define Embryo
An unborn human baby, in the first eight weeks from conception, after (blastocyst) implantation but before all the organs are developed.

Blastocyst implants itself into the uterine wall to the time the developing organism becomes a recognizable human fetus.
Stem Cells can be developed from what types of cells?
*(Adult Tissue, Placenta, and Umbilical cord
What is a gene
Is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent.
What is meiosis
((Cell division in which the number of chromosomes is halved))

Involves two cell divisons during which the chromosomes are reduced to half their original number.
Who determines the sex of the child?
Male's sperm carries the chromosome that determines the sex of the child.
What is the normal Chromosomal pattern in males and females?
XX) Female, (XY) Male
What is a Genotype?
The actual genetic makeup of an organism
What is the correct order of the developmental stages from conception to birth?
Germinal, Embryonic, and Fetal development
How is the embryo characterized?
*Recognizable human form
*Rapid growth
*Chief organs
*Placenta with mother
Understand the difference between cephalocaudal development and proximodistal development.
Cephalocaudal development- Development that commences with the brain and works its way down the body.

Proximodistal development- The tissues grow in opposite directions away from the axis of the primitive streak.

(Primitive streak eventually becomes the spinal cord)
What are some of the effects to the baby if the mom has been smoking during pregnancy?
*Prematurity and low birth weight.
*Higher range of physical and cognitive disabilities.
*Reduced growth of fetal head, causing congnitive impairments
*Associated with ADHD in children
*Birth defects such as cleft lip or palate
How are mothers different today then they where 20 years ago?
There are more older and more well educated mothers today then 20 years ago
What is the purpose of the psycoprophylactic method? What does it teach?
*Counter society beliefs and fear of birth
*Relax and breathe correctly
*Understanding of the birth process
*Padlocks association of fear conditioned response
What is lightening?
When a few weeks before birth the baby turns downward. The uterus undergoes lightening by sinking downward and forward, which lightens mother's discomfort.
What is the amniotic sac's primary function?
The amniotic sac & its filling provide a liquid that surrounds & cushions the fetus. It allows the fetus to move freely within the walls of the uterus. Buoyancy is also provided.
What is molding?
When as a producta newborn is born their heads are often misshapen and elongated. The process by which the soft skull "bones" become temporarily distorted to accomodate passage through the birth canal.
What is the Apgar scoring system?
Infant acessed at one minute after & again at five minutes after birth on the basis of five conditions?
*Heart rate
*Resporatory effort
*Muscle tone
*Reflex irritability
*Body color
The ratings are summed, highest possible score is ten.
What is the Couvade syndrome?
Fathers complaints of uncomfortable physical symptoms, dietary changes, and weight gain because of their partners pregancy.
What do perinatologist and neonatologist specialize in? What do they do?
Specialize in managing complicated high risk pregnancies, birth, and the post birth experience. (NICU)Neonatal intensive care unit is staffed with perinatologist and neonatologist.
What is entrainment?
Term used to describe the rhythm that is established between a parent's and an infant's behavior
Describe what a newborns vision is like?
"Infants are generally farsighted at birth"
What are the different things learned in the sensorimotor stage?
*Object permanence
Perceptual systems

Piaget's term for the first of his cognitive stages of development (0 to 2 years)
What impact does a depressed mother have on her infant?
Reduced capicity for caregiving, nurturing, and stimulating their infants, causes their youngsters to lag behind in their cognitive adaptations, including emotional, language, and social development. Babies are more withdrawn, unresponsive, and inattentive.
What is communication?
The process by which people transmit information, ideas, attitudes, and emotions to one another.
What is Autisum and some characteristics associated with it?
Is a neurological disorder that appears in "normal" children at about age 2 who regress and show significant deficits in communication and social interaction, language impairment, preoccupation with fantasy, and unsual repetitive or excessive behaviors.
What is caregiver speech?
Simplified vocabulary, higher pitch, exaggerated intonation, short simple sentences, and high proportion of questions and imperatives.
What was Noam Chomsky known for?
*LAD (Language acquistion device)
*All humans possess inborn language mechanism
What is paralanguage?
The stress, pitch, and volume of vocalizations by which we communicate expressive meaning. Involves how something is said, not what is said.
What is expressive language?
Language that children use to express their own ideas and needs. Using their own words to effectively convey meaning, feeling or mood
What are holophrases?
Children's first words that usually carry multiple meanings depending on the context in which they are used.
The average child should understand how many words by the age of 13 months?
The average child at 13 months understands 50 words. Yet the average child at 13 months cannot speak 50 words until 6 months later.
What is social referencing?
Being able to read another persons emotional reactions permist social referencing. The pratice whereby an inexperienced person relies on a more experienced person's perception of an event to regulate his or her subsequent behavior.
What is Self-regulation?
Ability to control negative emotions and intergrate emotions adaptively into daily social interactions. Put another way (Ability to follow the everyday customs and norms valued by his or her culture)
Understand the difference between Discriminate attachment and Indiscriminate attachment?
Discriminate attachment- Infant distinguishes between carers & strangers & exhibits distress or separation anxiety when left alone (they have developed object permanence) & may be fearful of the strangers.
*Specific attachment

Indiscriminate attachment- Infant can distinguish between familiar & unfamiliar people but is quite happy to be comforted by anyone.
Reactive attachment disorder is characterized by what behaviors?
Children are emotionally withdrawn or inhibited, rarely look to others for comfort, and rarely react when comfort is given. The Indiscriminate RAD subtype consist of children who look for aqffection from anyone, even strangers, and who fail to show expected reserve with unfamiliar adults.

RAD sometimes develops in children who are adopted out of abusive or neglectful cercumstances.
The result of a parent who acts in ways that are domineering and controlling with his or her child is likely to be__________.
A child can become ((anxious and submissive)) or ((defiant and antagonistic)). Because children do not react in the same ways to the same developmental influences A Domineering parent could have different effects on different children.

*Anxious or defiant depending on the temperment of the child
What is temperment?
Consistant basic dispositions that underlie and modulate much of a persons behavior. The qualities parents and researchers value are the "Big Five" -extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, absence of neuroticism, & openness to new experience.
Understand the difference between a slow-to-warm up baby and a difficult baby?
Slow-to-warm up (children with low intensity of reactions; tend to be withdrawn, somewhat negative mood, and wariness in new situations)

Difficult baby (Wail and cry a great deal, have violent tantrums, spit out new foods, scream & twist when their faces are washed, eat and sleep in irregular patterns, and are not easy to pacify)
Understand what neglect is and what neglected children are at an increased risk for?
Delinquency behavior Truancy *Criminal behavior
*Violent behavior
A form of child abuse
Defined- the absence of adequate social, emotional, & physical care. Negelect can occur regardless of socioeconomic status.
Risk-Toddlers who are neglected dont learn to recognize, express, understand emotions as nonabused children do. May react to distress of a playmate with fear/anger rather then empathy. Hard for them to make friends. They also find it harder to pay attention.