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tiny air sac at the end of a bronchiole in the lungs that provides surface area for gas exchange to occur
large muscular upper chamber of the heart that receives and holds blood that is about to enter the ventricle
process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen; made of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
if two copies of an autosomal chromosome fail to separate during meiosis, an individual may be born with three copies of a chromosome
iron- containing protein in red blood cells that transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body
consists of central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral (all other nerves); coordinates body's response to changes in its internal and external environment
glands that produce hormones that regulate blood sugar; enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high- energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
only a single X chromosome; sterile female- sex organs don't develop; widened neck; more than 2 nipples
when one of the coronary arteries becomes blocked and part of the heart muscle begins to die from lack of oxygen
two fist sized organs located near lower back; removes extra water and waste; controls blood pressure; red blood cell regulation; helps maintain chemical balance in body; helps maintain acid base pH; Vitamin D activator
tiny complex structures that filter blood plasma to remove wastes and to control the water and salt concentration of the blood plasma
serves as a barrier against infection and injury; helps regulate body temperature; protection from the sun
provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes excess carbon dioxide from the body
converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by the cells of the body; absorbs food
supports the body; protects internal organs; allows movement; stores mineral reserves; site for blood cell formation
works with skeletal system to produce voluntary movement; helps to circulate blood and movement through the digestive system
brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells; fights infection; regulates body temperature
produces reproductive cells; in females, nurtures and protects developing embryo
process by which the product of a system shuts down the system or limits its operation
cover the surface of the body and line internal organs; lining along the chambers of the heart prevents leakage of blood; glands are made of epithelial tissue
blocks dust particles from entering the nose; trap bacteria; brings in molecules that are connected to our nervous system (ole factory)
cells that produce melanin; most people have roughly the same number of melanocytes in the skin
white blood cells
leucocytes or phagocytes; no hemoglobin; have nuclei; engulf and/ or destroy invading particles and bacteria; part of the imune system; some escape through capillaries
red blood cells
also called erythrocytes; carries oxygen (attached to hemoglobin) to body cells; carries CO2 away from body cells; made in the bone marrow; no nucelus
55% of the total blood; mixture of 90% water, 8% proteins, .9% minerals; small amounts of amino acids, simple sugars, and metabolic wastes; interstitial fluid or Lymph
cell fragments that start clotting; release enzymes that build up a fibrous clot to stop bleeding
location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell; the narrow space between neurons
chemicals used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell
a pattern in which species experience long, stable periods interrupted by brief periods of rapid evolutionary change
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