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Advection Fog

Warm air pulled across a cold surface cools and dew point is reached resulting in advection fog.

Air mass

Large mass of air which has relatively uniform temperatures and moisture.


The percentage of solar radiation reflected back to space.


Instrument which measures wind speed.


another name for a high pressure area.


Compass direction in which a slope faces. In northern hemisphere wasmest slopes have a southern aspect.


an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure.

Chinook Winds

A warm dry wind which brings warming effect to areas on the eastern side of the Rockies. Calgary experiences Chinook winds several times in winter.

Cirrus Clouds

High cloud made of ice crystals. Usually seen ahead of approaching warm front.

Cold Front

The leading edge of a cold air mass.

Convection Rainfall

Heating of the atmosphere by the earth causes air to warm and rise, resulting in rising convection currents. As rising air cools, the water vapour condenses and clouds and precipitation occur.

Coriolis Effect

Force created by the spinning of the earth. This force deflects winds to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere.


Cloud which builds vertically. Produces heavy rain, hail thunder.


Area of low atmospheric pressure.


Area of no winds in the equator area.


Droplets of condensed water vapour.

Dew point

the temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and condensation begins.

Environmental Lapse Rate

A drop in temperature occurs at elevation. Temperature goes down by 1ºC per 150 Meters.

Greenhouse effect

warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere.

Warm Air.

Warm air Rises, Low pressure.

Cold Air.

Cold air sinks, High Pressure.

Air flow.

High to low.


A tropical disturbance with wind speeds exceeding 120 km/h. Distinctive feature of all hurricanes is the "eye"."


Lines joining areas of equal pressure on weather maps.


Latitude, Altitude, Cloud Cover, Seasons, Aspect, Prevailing winds, Ocean Proximity, Ocean Currents, Pollution.

Occluded Fronts

When a faster moving Cold front over takes a Slow moving Warm front.

Radiation Fog

On still clear nights when ground cools rapidly, the ground cools the air in contact with it. Dew point is reached. The condensing water vapour is the fog we see.

Orographic/Relief Precipitation

precipitation that occurs when relatively warm, humid air is forced to rise over an elevated landform.

Frontal Precipitation

Precipitation which results when two air masses of different temperatures meet and the warm air is forced over the cooler air.

Convection Precipitation

The sun heats the ground, which in turn heats atmosphere. Air rises, as it rises cooling takes place, forcing temperature to reach dew point.

Layers of the Atmosphere

Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere (Ionosphere & Exosphere).

Land Breeze

movement of air from land to sea at night, created when cooler, denser air from the land forces up warmer air over the sea.

Sea Breeze

movement of air from sea to land during the day when cooler air from above the water moves over the land, forcing the heated, less dense air above the land to rise.

Katabatic Wind.

Cold flow of air traveling downward or down a slope.

Anabatic Wind.

Air current or wind rising up a slope.

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