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animal bones and tortoise shells on which priests scratched questions for gods; way to consult gods
a political system in which nobles or lords are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king
500 BC: philosophy; founder = Confucius, human relationships to reform society, Filial Piety, bureaucracy, education is important to society & career advancement, people are good but need leadership examples, advice rulers on governance, one man ruler
220 BC: philosophy; founders = Hanfeiz & LiSi, urged harsh rule, powerful government was key to restoring order, stressed punishment, people are bad and need strong laws and punishments to maintain order, one man ruler
100 BC: philosophy; founder = Laozi, natural order more important than government & social order, Dao De Ching, Dao guides all things, the true way is above human understanding, Ying & Yang, Loa Tze: composite of many teachers, government = little impact on people's lives
a book of oracles to answer ethical or practical problems; good advice & common sense = happy life
government jobs that civilians obtained by taking exams; the administrative departments of a government
occurs when a group has exclusive control over the production and distribution of certain goods
a printer that could arrange blocks of individual characters in a frame to make a page for printing
a large collection of nomadic tribes that lived north of china in the steppes who were later united by Genghis Khan
The Forbidden City
a palace built in Beijing; a monument to China's isolation; all commoners and foreigners were forbidden to enter without special permission; only the emperor, his family and his court lived inside the palace; emperors conducted the bussiness of state and lived in luxury and isolation
believed social order, harmony & a good government would reform society; born when Zhou Dynasty was torn apart by war lords
thinker; believed natural order was more important to reforming society rather than social order and government
first emperor of Qin Dynasty; unified China at the expense of human freedom; doubled China's size; Qin Chang (name before)
rebelled against Xiang Yu and won; first emperor of Han Dynasty; lowered taxes, softened punishments, departed from Legalism, stability, peace; destroyed rival's power & won popular support
appointed infants as emperors; made alliances & contacts with nobles; ruled as regent through son
Han emperor; expanded thorough war; appointed qualified people to government jobs through a civil service test based on Confucianism
begun Tang Empire's achievements, restored middle kingdom to glory; expansion, strengthened government, expanded roads & canals, lowered taxes & took land from wealthy, promoted foreign trade & improvements in agriculture
overthrew Han Dynasty and started Xin Dynasty; restored order and brought country under control; printed more $ -> relieved debt; took land away from nobles and redistributed to poor
first foreigner to rule all of China; established Yuan Dynasty -> united China & opened it to greater foreign contacts and trade; moved Mongol capital to Mongolia to China; tolerated culture; no change to government
commanded the rebel army that drove the Mongols out; first emperor of the Ming Dynasty; made reforms: restore agricultural lands destroyed by war, erase all trace of Mongol past & promote China's prosperity & power; returned to Confucian moral standards; restored civil service exam
trader from Venice; served in Mongol court; captured & imprisoned in a war against Venice's rival city -> fellow prisoner wrote a book about his stories about China (many did not believe him); described Khan to Europeans
lead exploration voyages; the voyages impressed the world with their power & expanded the tribute system; traveled to southeast Asia, India, Arabia & eastern Africa
emperor of Qing Dynasty; reduced government expenses & lowered taxes; offered intellectuals government positions; Jesuits at court -> informed about developments in science, math & medicine
1532-1027 BC: first family to leave written records, built elaborate palaces & tombs, sharp division between nobles & peasants
1027-256 BC: controlled thorough Feudalism, improvements in technology & trade (silk, coined $, cast iron)
221 BC: doubled China's size, program of centralization, The Great Wall of China was completed
202 BC - 220 AD: paper, silk, territorial expansion brings people of many cultures under Chinese rule, gap between rich and poor increases, civil service test
960-1279 AD: moveable type, paper money & mechanical clock, greatest sea power, cultivation of rice, great art
1279-1368 AD: dynasty in China set up by the Mongols under the leadership of Kublai Khan, replaced the Song, kept separate identity from the Chinese
The Ming Dynasty
had become the dominant power, drove out Mongols, returned to Confucian moral standards, restored civil service exam, exploration voyages, isolation policy (only government could control trade), Christianity spread
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