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49 terms

Unit 6

Ancient China
STUDY
PLAY
Loess
fertile soil deposited by the Huang He River
Oracle Bones
animal bones and tortoise shells on which priests scratched questions for gods; way to consult gods
Caligraphy
art of beautiful handwriting
Dynastic Cycle
the pattern of rise, decline & replacement of dynasties
Mandate of Heaven
royal authority came from heaven; central to government
Feudalism
a political system in which nobles or lords are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king
Philosophy
a system of beliefs and values
Filial Piety
practice of children respecting parents & elders
Confucianism
500 BC: philosophy; founder = Confucius, human relationships to reform society, Filial Piety, bureaucracy, education is important to society & career advancement, people are good but need leadership examples, advice rulers on governance, one man ruler
Legalism
220 BC: philosophy; founders = Hanfeiz & LiSi, urged harsh rule, powerful government was key to restoring order, stressed punishment, people are bad and need strong laws and punishments to maintain order, one man ruler
Daoism
100 BC: philosophy; founder = Laozi, natural order more important than government & social order, Dao De Ching, Dao guides all things, the true way is above human understanding, Ying & Yang, Loa Tze: composite of many teachers, government = little impact on people's lives
I Ching
a book of oracles to answer ethical or practical problems; good advice & common sense = happy life
Civil Service
government jobs that civilians obtained by taking exams; the administrative departments of a government
Meritocracy
government made up of qualified people
Monopoly
occurs when a group has exclusive control over the production and distribution of certain goods
Assimilation
process of making conquered people part of Chinese culture; way to unify empire
Tributary State
a country that pays tribute in money or goods to a more powerful nation
Moveable type
a printer that could arrange blocks of individual characters in a frame to make a page for printing
Gentry
powerful people; education & civil service positions; landowners; highest class
Pagoda
tower with many stories built as a temple or memorial
Mongols
a large collection of nomadic tribes that lived north of china in the steppes who were later united by Genghis Khan
Manchus
people of Manchuria who invaded China & established the Qing Dynasty
The Forbidden City
a palace built in Beijing; a monument to China's isolation; all commoners and foreigners were forbidden to enter without special permission; only the emperor, his family and his court lived inside the palace; emperors conducted the bussiness of state and lived in luxury and isolation
Confucius
believed social order, harmony & a good government would reform society; born when Zhou Dynasty was torn apart by war lords
Laozi
thinker; believed natural order was more important to reforming society rather than social order and government
Hanfeizi
founder of Legalism
Shi Huangdi
first emperor of Qin Dynasty; unified China at the expense of human freedom; doubled China's size; Qin Chang (name before)
Liu Bang
rebelled against Xiang Yu and won; first emperor of Han Dynasty; lowered taxes, softened punishments, departed from Legalism, stability, peace; destroyed rival's power & won popular support
Empress Lu
appointed infants as emperors; made alliances & contacts with nobles; ruled as regent through son
Wudi
Han emperor; expanded thorough war; appointed qualified people to government jobs through a civil service test based on Confucianism
Genghis Khan
leader who united the Mongols and began invasion of China
Tang Taizong
begun Tang Empire's achievements, restored middle kingdom to glory; expansion, strengthened government, expanded roads & canals, lowered taxes & took land from wealthy, promoted foreign trade & improvements in agriculture
Wang Mang
overthrew Han Dynasty and started Xin Dynasty; restored order and brought country under control; printed more $ -> relieved debt; took land away from nobles and redistributed to poor
Wu Zhao
first women emperor in China, continued Taizong's work
Kublai Khan
first foreigner to rule all of China; established Yuan Dynasty -> united China & opened it to greater foreign contacts and trade; moved Mongol capital to Mongolia to China; tolerated culture; no change to government
Hongwu
commanded the rebel army that drove the Mongols out; first emperor of the Ming Dynasty; made reforms: restore agricultural lands destroyed by war, erase all trace of Mongol past & promote China's prosperity & power; returned to Confucian moral standards; restored civil service exam
Yonglo
emperor of Ming Dynasty; moved royal court to Beijing; launched exploration voyages
Marco Polo
trader from Venice; served in Mongol court; captured & imprisoned in a war against Venice's rival city -> fellow prisoner wrote a book about his stories about China (many did not believe him); described Khan to Europeans
Zheng He
lead exploration voyages; the voyages impressed the world with their power & expanded the tribute system; traveled to southeast Asia, India, Arabia & eastern Africa
Kangxi
emperor of Qing Dynasty; reduced government expenses & lowered taxes; offered intellectuals government positions; Jesuits at court -> informed about developments in science, math & medicine
Shang Dynasty
1532-1027 BC: first family to leave written records, built elaborate palaces & tombs, sharp division between nobles & peasants
Zhou Dynasty
1027-256 BC: controlled thorough Feudalism, improvements in technology & trade (silk, coined $, cast iron)
Qin Dynasty
221 BC: doubled China's size, program of centralization, The Great Wall of China was completed
Han Dynasty
202 BC - 220 AD: paper, silk, territorial expansion brings people of many cultures under Chinese rule, gap between rich and poor increases, civil service test
Tang Empire
618-907 AD: porcelain, gunpowder & magnetic compass, great art & poetry
Song Dynasty
960-1279 AD: moveable type, paper money & mechanical clock, greatest sea power, cultivation of rice, great art
Yuan Dynasty
1279-1368 AD: dynasty in China set up by the Mongols under the leadership of Kublai Khan, replaced the Song, kept separate identity from the Chinese
The Ming Dynasty
had become the dominant power, drove out Mongols, returned to Confucian moral standards, restored civil service exam, exploration voyages, isolation policy (only government could control trade), Christianity spread
The Qing Dynasty
1644-1911 AD: upheld traditional Confucian beliefs & social structure, made frontiers safe, restored prosperity, continued the policy of isolation