Psychology - 9 10 11 12

Terms in this set (131)

Two points of view - piaget and behavioral

Piaget's stages of cognitive development -
Series of maturation stages - child must pass through stages, rate of progress is determined by environment.

Sensorimotor - action and sensation only. Objects do not exist unless they're in the field of vision. Must develop object permanance Gradually child moves on.

Preoperaitonal stage -
2 to 7
first use of symbolic imagery, race cars, child can now think about object and activities. Still egocentric. Sees himself as the center of creation. Puts human qualities to inanimate objects. Child is learning about the world around him, thinking is becoming more complex, can't do logical tasks because they can only do one aspect of problems.

Concrete operations
Age 7 to 12
Forms of reasoning.
More than one aspect of problem.
Can solve conservation tasks.
Not abstract yet.
Can organize thoughts in new ways. Can do a mental image of a series of actions and the reversibility of the actions.

Ages 12 - Formal operations
understand space, time, causality
Can use logic. Can deductive systematic thinking, hypothetical terms. Combines all mental abilities.
Problem-solving. Exploring all possible solutions.

Two mental processes -
Assimilation and accommodation

Assimilation - new perception into existing mental concept. Concept of bird - can assimilate new perceptions.

Accommodation - modification of existing mental concept to a new mental concept. Modifying thinking to fit the world.

Intrinsic physical activity is the way they learn. Increase interaction with others. Social experience is an important way that children clarify thinking and express themselves more logically.

Basic principle - student needs an opportunity to learn vs formal teaching. Teacher helps each individual child at their own speed/stage of learning. Encourages them to think in active creative ways. Widely accepted view of cognitive development. Some say it's not enough without learning and experience.
Early adulthood
Need close relationship and friendships
relationships with opposite sex
Form meaningful social relationships

interpersonal emotionally relationships, finding someone you love who loves you. Get married, get divorced. instability. Who you are relative to a relationship.

How do you develop a relationship if you don't trust the opposite sex. I give up on men. I'll be single forever. I'll focus on my career..

Issue - postpone dealing with this = ten years later you have to deal with the issues. Better to do it now. You get wiser as you get older if you have relationships. You learn from them. How do you know if you don't try. revenge flicks = do it to your boyfriend.

Planned, american - I marry you for what you can do for me. Fail because it's selfish

Tannen - Says you don't understand - communication is the issue - we don't communicate.

Red phone and green phone.

Men are 80% independent and 20% independent.

80% intimate and 20% independent

What happens
driving down the street. women says let's eat. man says not hungry. You never do what I want to do. Man said what the heck. Women say we/us/our family
Men - my dog, my car my my my.

men don't like to talk on the phone, go shopping, etc. Women are much more detailed.

fighting - what happened? Both independent - works fine. Both intimate - works fine. Most of the time you're on opposite scales. Most of the time we argue because we're opposite. Not communicating, different points of view.

Orange marry an apple. Better like apple pie, cider and sauce. Cannot make apple an orange or a grape. Want you to be like me! Can't do it.

An understanding of another person's way of being is a relationship. Not about changing or controlling the other person or possessing them. People destroy their relationship.
Ph.D. or PsyD, - Doctorate of psychology.
Graduate school and 1 year residency
Ten years of training in mental health

medical school and 3 year residency
Can prescribe drugs, perform surgery
Three years training in mental health

Ph.D. is more academic/research/MA/MS. Do a thesis on master level and dissertation on graduate level. Dissertation is often empirical - they collect data. Only PhD teach at universities.

Psyd - Dissertation is more theoretical or clinical. Less research and statistics. Are going to be psychotherapists.

Get 4 years of psychology for Bachelor
2 years for master
Year 1 - coursework
Year 2 - Practicum, part of it in house with supervision and feedback. Second part of practicum - supervision in an internship.
After master - go to 3 year doctoral program -
Involves two years of coursework, last year is the same but with a practicum and internship. Also do a one year doctoral dissertation.
Graduate with Phd - Go do 1 year residency - another year of supervision before getting licenses.

Adds up to ten years of training in mental health, no other professional requires this.

Psychiatrists -
Interested in brain injury, epilepsy, organic basis of disease. What is the biological basis for the disorder?
4 years of undergrad in whatever, usually medical related health science related. Pass entrance exam. Then four years of medical school, anatomy, physiology, clinical work, many have not taken psychology courses. Then three year residency in mental health, involves medicine and medications.

Psychologist want to be able to prescribe drugs because they have more training than psychiatrist. They have more mental health experience and psychology.
Generalized anxiety disorder - worry all the time about many things

panic disorders -
number one disorder in U.S., 28 million, most anxious people with guns in U.S. Panic happens very suddenly and they have anticipatory anxiety of when it's going to happen, they feel like they're going to die and lose control. This behavior is often associated with what they were around, then they avoid that environment. Their world becomes smaller and smaller.

agoraphobia - fear of fears, most common fear. fear is a primary emotion but what you fear is learned. Afraid of open spaces, start avoiding what they're afraid of, reduce their activity, end of living at home.

ptsd -
one of the worst disorders, person is in a living hell, it haunts them and takes over their life. You look fine.
most popular anxiety disorder. Need two things for PTSD.
Precusor - acute stress disorder - occurs during first month following tragic event.

1. Person has to be exposed to a near death experience
2. Have to be rendered helpless

3 more
1. Intrusions - keep thinking about the event as if it's happening all the time.

4. avoidance - avoid thinking about it, actively avoid talking about it, going near it, deny, repress, suppress but it keeps coming back

5. Hyper level of arousal - high startle reflex, nervous, anxious, can't sleep, emotional dis-regulation - sense of trust and safety is shattered, you're weak and vulnerable. Things in the environment cause you to relive it. Then you have nightmares

Timing makes it posttraumatic - after a month if it still occurs it's PTSD.

Ex. Going to Hawaii, ready to go, fly over the inlet, plane crashes. Trying to unbuckle, get out. The whole time you're saying i'm on a beach, not in a broken plane. The ego hides and watches the whole thing. You can't cry, you're busy surviving. You get rescued, two months later that person that watched it comes out and redoes the event. Happens with soldiers as POW's.

obsessive-compulsive disorder
obsessive -repeating and thinking about something over and over, can't let go of what you're thinking about. Rituals - can't step on a crack . Takes two hours to leave the house. Must check and double-check. Thinking about it. Very organized. All about security, do the rituals in a certain order to keep them safe. Try to get everyone to do the same way.

Behavior - the compulsion - engaging in the behavior

Problem with obsessive-compulsive
Used to be called neurotic
Neurosis - based on fear
fear impacts your life

These are axis 1 disorders
five axis -
Disorders are shorthand for what's going on syndrome etc. of communicating with other mental health professionals

psychotics - 2 + 2 = 5, live in castle
neurotics 2 + 2 = 4 but they worry about it, they can't leave things alone

all based on fear and worry excessively so, dominates life, becomes a problem.
misunderstood, people are frightened, it's a pschotic disorder,
loss of contact with reality
delusions, hallucinations. Introverted, live in their own reality, live in a world we don't understand. Talk to themselves, preaching, doing odd stuff.
Does not mean split-personality. That would be a dissiative disorder multiple personality disorder. Why are they confused?
Because Schizoid means split and phrenia means mind. It's just a split between mind and emotion, they're disconnected, what you think and what you feel are two different things. Laugh like a hyena, scream for no reason, etc.

Exaggerated form of suspicious that everyone's out to get them.
Though disorder

Emotions are not connected to mind. Laughing and crying.
emotional component

Body - like the tinman - put them in a pretzel and they'll stay like that or they're the opposite like scarecrow- no bones. Could be very rigid.
body component

Grab bag of all the ones above, any and all at any given time.

Person had schizophrenia but has not shown symptoms in awhile.
Ex. Graduate students went to the psych hospital and checked themselves in. Professor had to get them out. Hospital said they had schizophrenia in remission.

Acute reaction -Acute = person has this disorder suddenly in response to something and the prognosis is good that you're going to recover soon or early.

Chronic -
Person has had the disorder for a long time/has had it for a lifetime, prognosis is not good

Reactive -
Similar to acute -
Response to an event.

Process -
More chronic, person is likely to have this for a long time
Personality disorders
Style of behavior that becomes problematic n your daily living, 20 25 personality disorders. Can be very problematic

Someone who is passive, submissive, requires a lot of reassurance. Batman is narcissistic, Robin is dependent. The sidekick.
Preoccupied with abandonment, rejection, hurt by criticism and disapproval, can't do anything on their own without support or approval.

Most dangerous of personality disorder
Aggressive, irritable, kill you in a heartbeat, no empathy, no clue of what it's like to be a victim, kind of like a reptile.
Often have a very amoral character, end up with problems. As a child is oppositional defiant disorder, say no all the time, very difficult. Becomes conduct disorder- stealing, fighting, truancy, going to juvenile homes.
Around 18 - becomes a criminal, rape, robbery, murder, cold, dark, empty, usually wind up in jail, no remorse, don't usually get better.think rules don't apply to them

Cost a lot of time and money. Hard to work with. Their identity is diffused, they take anything you do personally. They don't know who they are. Late to session, you don't like me! I've heard you're the best therapist in the world! When someone praises you like that watch out. Bulimia, anorexia, hysteria, throw a fit in a diner, very unstable. They don't learn.
Ex. come to therapy, I got a job! Oh great! I just lost it. Why? I slept in. But guess what I got a dog! how are you going to take care of it! Then they ask what kind of person on you. They blow all their chances. Don't loan them your money, your car, etc. They're learning program is turned off and they have no identify of who they are and who they aren't. Identity problem. 80% don't get better. Pattern of this behavior because they don't know where they start and stop, they're like a cloud. Very manipulative.

Very popular in america
TV programs - Archie, the Fonz on Happy Days, Alex from Family Ties, Tom Cruise movies.
Think the whole world revolves around them, they're entitled, they' use people, think of just themselves, conceited, self-centered. How's your son doing. I'm mad at my son because I wonder what people think of me! It's about her not her son. They want to be the center of attention, they don't listen to what you say and they convert what you say to them, you're the only person in this room. Is the American ideal. Scienfield.
voyeurism - to see, likes to watch and look. Might start with an x-rated film. build cameras in showers, peoples homes, etc. get excited by watching others. Can get carried away. Watch partner with another person.

We see a lot of voyeuristic stuff in tv, lady in bikini selling tires, issue of the no bra look, people that are obsessed with certain parts of their body

exhibitionism -
the number one sexual disorder of the us. 1/3 of all sexual disorders
People expose themselves to others
Very common, males in particular. Females flashing people down the road...
Voyeurs like exhibitionism, one wants to expose, one wants to see.
Ex. dressing provocatively, hanging out in their underwear, going into hot tub nude, etc. Whole scale of this, modest to extreme, freedome in physical comfort and exposure

Found with masochist
marqui de sade - frenchman who was into inflicting pain on willing victims, bondage and disciplines or sadist and masochist
What happens is that people start with spanking, slapping, hitting, bondage, blindfold. Can get carreid away to whips, chains, punishing, torturing, hot wax, driving nails into genitals, can get very aggressive to the point of enjoying necrophelia.....

Most sadist are interested in inflicting pain and torture, pain, screaming, the response. Some people like being punished.

The receiving end, enjoys being punished. No one enjoys/want to be raped. Is different than masochism. Masochist enjoy being taken over, controlled, etc. rape is not the same thing. Rape is where it's completely out of your control, is about a total disregard and neglect in your welfare. Sadist masochist are focused on pleasure/pain at willingness o the masochist. When it's no longer a choice it's rape.
a special attraction to an object or something. People who like to touch people in crowded places. Most fetishhes are foot, breast, leg, underwear. They catch their sexual energy and focus to an object. Object might become a child. Child is preferred object, does not care about the emotions, is used for sexual pleasure, have inadequate personalities, can't related to adults. Easier to manipulate and use children because they dont' have to have a relationship.

Once a pedophile always a pedophile. Starts very early in life 8 or 10, already molesting other children. Child starts molesting kids until 21 oe 25 when they're arrested they've molested 50 children. Children then need therapy. Incest - family members involved, most children are abused by people they know. They have to register even after jail. The only way to stop them is never let them be alone with children. Mothers have to pay attention.

Function of two things -
precosious - know way too much about sex before they should - is because of

lack of boundaries between private touch personal touch etc. Didn't teach them about self and self-respect/cannot touch them without permission

Second - lack of supervision - mothers are responsible for watching their children, you don't leave your child with a male babysitter.

beastiality - sex with animals
internet - every sexual behavior you can think of
nothing better than having a relationship with someone that you love/loves you
you have a problem

sex with the dead
not many willing victims
Alaska - have this problem - hypothermia - strip your clothes off - lost thermal control

Autoerotic asphyxiation
scarfing - cut off circulation - often found hang in their bathroom - game - choke themselves - game of knocking people out - as they get older they do scarfing for sexual pleasure - many adolescents play knock out game
medical therapy -
considered not a psychotherapy because it involves chemotherapy and pscyhopharmacology drugs and meds as a means of conditions to minimize the symptoms, does not cure.

Terms -
patient - do you call someone a patient or a client? We have a prejudice against people with psychological problems when people that seek therapy are the most sane and normal people. Negative attitude towards people getting therapy.

mental illness -
a typical concept, part o the medical model

observable signs of unconscince dynamic, often treating symptoms but not the cause, you get rid or one symptom then another pops up because the cause is still there, cause can often be prevented. Medicine is more downstream theory - people upstream are falling into river, medical system is pulling people out of river instead of figuring out why people are falling into the river in the first place.

A constellaiton of symptoms and signs that group together

best guess hypothesis about what the problem is, what it is and what it's not, didorders overlap

best guess for course of disorder

shock treatment - voltage levels are small and controlled - there's anxiety associated with it, can be effective for chronic depression, people who have not responded to meds and therapy. Is temporary, last six months to a year and has many side effects.

Lobotomy - remove parts of the brain, usually only when there is a brain dsyfunction like a tumor. the brain is fragile and we don't' know much about it.

only responds to physiological aspect not emotional cognitive or behavioral, people get tired of side effects. Alters personality in a permanent way, has consequences. Issue of pharmacy company are corrupt sometimes. There's political issues with medicine and pharmacy.

Medicine is practice, is not certain, is a function of the practicioner, the quality of their skill and knowledge and ability, what the disorder is and what to do about it. Many physicians would like to think there's a right treatment for every disorder but some diagnosis everyone with the same problem. A lot of controls in medicine and legal issues and insurance companies, practicing with one arm behind their back due to restrictions of what they can and can't do.
Freudian -
the goal of successful psychotherapy is changing the extreme suffering of the neurotic into the normal misery of human existence -

We believe that we should all be happy all the time so people take drugs. It's not sunny every day but some people take pills to try to stay happy all the time.

notion of three ego states and how they fight for position
ego - reality
id - pleasure
superego - morality

insight therapy - trying to get the client to have some level of insight about their issues, information they're thinking is blocked, psychoanlysis tries to unblock or break down the patients resistances, usually has a lot of defense mechanisms and resistance to the truth about themselves, usually because they're afraid of the result. Might be too painful to revisit.

free association
client says whatever comes to mind, therapist might give them a word, what do you think of when you think of mother, to try to dredge up information that is hidden in the unconscious. information that is suppressed

dream content
manifest content and latent content, record your dreams, go through and analyze it with you for meaning of the dream - manifest content, they piece together the latent meaning. the stuff you're not telling them

resistance -
product of defense mechanisms and protection of ego from shame, guilt, unpleasant feelings about fear/anxiety/depression/guilt/shame. Person does a lot of resisting to not talk about something they need to confront. They might have you focus on something you're not thinking about for an aha experience so you have insight about what the issue is, they might guide you to look at an area that you're not willing to look so you can have insight. Some people don't like tor review the past, the past is the past, can't change it, still have the problem. Some would argue that what good does it do to rehash the things when doing that is just a wast of time because insight doesn't solve the problem and you're wasting time justifying the problem in the past. It takes a long time, three years or more and is expensive. Often see actors and actresses have psychoanalysts. At what point do you become that character? Point is that the psychoanalyst -- lost favor in united states, reason is sense of immediacy, we don't have the time or money, want to focus on the present, what can we do about hte beahvior now.

Issue of transference -

the analyst encourages and facilitates transference -
means that when patients come in they see the therapists as the person they're having trouble with. They practice and take it out on you. Practicing through role play the issues they have yet to resolve. Is supported and encouraged. It's part of the professional dimension to pschoanalysis, allows therapist to be a fly on the wall to observe how they act, you can see their anger and frustration
A good marriage therapist does not listen to them fight... there to learn new skills on how to fight fair and communicate and resolve problems. A good opportunity for client to express issues and therapist to observe and participate by being the target of the issue.

problem - unethical, unprofessional, can be illegal.
Therapist starts to take out their issues on the client .
Ex. A therapist has sex with a client. Easy for a client to fall in love with therapist because therapist looks like they have all the answers. They don't (high divorce and suicide rate). Patient often says I wish my husband was like you, you listen and talk and hear. If therapist does not understand boundaries they might begin a relationship with the client, telling personal problems to the client, client becomes there therapist. You can lose your license to practice. Happens often.

Also includes disliking your client because you are prejudiced, they're obese, they're drinking, doing things you don't approve of and you get angry.

Ex. graduate students - end of semester they want to prove their good therapists they want their clients to get better before final week, clients aren't ready. Students get mad at client for not moving fast enough.

Whenever your personal issues interfere with the client profiting from the therapy. If this happens, refer client to other therapist/see therapist themselves.

Why should psychologists be held to a higher standard than layers etc? People are vulnerable, especially people that have boundary issues or have been sexually abused. Don't take it personal, don't get involved before during or after therapy.

you act out in the room
after observing, switch roles
switch again - how do you feel as your husband?
important in trying on to practice and simulate what it might be like at home or work with you person to learn new skills.

often occurs institutional settings
sad - person who has various cognitive deficits or emotional deficits and people steal from them and take advantage of them. Might rape them, do things to them, etc. A way to train people that could be preyed on, teach them what to do when this happens. Children in school - a play - teach people some mental issues ,how to say no to sex, drugs, alcohol, etc.

Method of psychotherapy
Freud - studied this to get into unconscious
self-hypnosis is all hypnosis
person allows themselves to be hypnotized, cannot do something you wouldn't normally do. Get into movie or not.
Problem - is often used - man seduce client with this - usually happens put hypnosis on trial rather than the person who used the hypnosis. It's not weird, it's a form of relaxation where people are suggestible. issue is the conduct, no the hypnosis. Most people don't understand it.

Psychodynamic overview -
is an sight therapy
breaks down resistance so person can have insight into dynamics of their ego states and how they are preventing them from being free of their neurosis their fears their anxiety their guilt.
Many people have a lot of baggage. We carry it around with us. People that go to pschoanlysis - dredging up past material is focused on the past.

psychoanalysis -
talk therapy, person on the couch, therapist sits behind you, a process in the therapy,
1. couch
2. free association
3. dream content
4. resistance
5. transference

when a person goes to therapy one of the first things they do, they recognize that they have issues and go to an admission counselor who determines what the problem is, intake counselor decides what the issue is, then are referred to a therapist who sees you two or three times or if it's long term they'll refer you to a specialist.
more cotemporary freudian concept, average person understands ego state better.

Fredudian view is replaced with view
ego = adult
superego = parent
id = child
= neoFreudian

Different ego states we all carry with us. Goes into discussing how these occur on a day to day basis, how we communicate, how we interact.

Balance transaction - when each person is talking to the aspect of the other person that is responding. The appropriate ego state.

Ex. parent = kids are so smart
parent 2 - they sure are!
two parent ego states talking to one another, is normal, natural

Adult - my brother is acting so strange lately
adult 2 - why don't you talk to him about it

If you ask the time and they say why don't you wear a watch - parent - child message. Asking the time, not the lecture...

Ex. I got an A on my exam today - child message - illicting a parent message - that's great I knew you could do it. is normal. couples do this often.

Crossed transaction -
when one aspect is different than the other.

Ex. I would like pizza tonight - adult -
Parent - pizza is all fat, you need to lose weight. Like it's their job to take care of you.

Some people only respond out of one state.

Child - I got an award for my work! trying to get a parent message.
Why do you always get the awards? - child message back, whining.

Two people are talking, let's skip school and have fun! yes - child -child

Could your parent make an angel in the snow? Some would, some would not. Some are stuck in parent role, other roles are contaminated. Focuses on interpersonal dynamics.

Child - let's go skiing for the weekend!
parent - don't you have a paper due on Monday - critical parent not nurturing parent.

As you learn more, each circle has a parent adult child within the circle, subcategoreis for each ego state.
carl rogers theory on self theory - was a humanist - in the 60's and 70s humanism was a big force in psychology, concern about the self. taking responsibility of the self. The idea of congruence and incongruence. and ideal self and real self.
Very common in humanistic - very good at communicating because they're great listeners. They say very little. Don't presume to tell you what to do, you live your own life. Don't take responsibility for their lives.

comfortable with themselves

Very good at communicating because they're insightful, focus on congruence and incongruence.

nondirective -
they are not going to direct the therapy, you determine the way the therapy goes. Let you own you stuff, no excuses. What do you plan to do about it? People get upset when someone puts it back on them.

Unconditional positive regard
They make you feel love, respect, validated, confirmed, supported. Like grandparents. They don't judge you, don't get uptight about it. A lot of listening. Not in a teaching mode, in receptive listening mode.

In their presence, the environment makes you feel good about being yourself. All about the self, self-esteem, self-actualization, self-confidence. Self can flourish. Their attention is on you, they don't answer the phone, undivided attention, you feel special. More good in you than bad, recognize that, celebrate it.

Very honest, sometimes painful. They won't lie, very direct and supportive. Not interested in resistance or what's bad and wrong with you, what's right with you. Own your behavior.

Problem - not going to tell you what to do. Not going to give you advice.

get real! - authentic -
honest, down to earth, forthright, what you see is what you get, no games, no pretending, comfortable with who they are. Makes you feel comfortable about who you are because they're not making judgement about you, they don't assume anything.

You cry they cry, you laugh they laugh
they feel what you feel. I feel depressed, seems like you're depressed. A true therapist would say sounds like you're depressed but i'm not sure if you're sad or unhappy. They clarify to what you're wanting to say instead of mimicking what you say. They explore this with you. Walk a mile in your shoes. They are congruent. You know that they know and you both know that they understand what you're feeling. You have an understanding.

A skill we all could learn to use. Like a mirror, whenever someone is angry, you hold up a mirror. They have to take responsibility for their behavior. People use anger to manipulate and control. Kind of like tag. People like to make you angry and off balance.

Ex. client has fight with wife, wants to have a fight with therapist so he can drink. Sounds like you're angry today...I'm angry at you! Idea is that i'm not going to take on his anger so he can feel justified and go drinking. Issue is, how to handle this. Have statements

Sounds like you're upset, perhaps you're angry about that, perhaps there's something you want to talk about that. Don't get into the personal stuff. Put the mirror in their face. Eventually they realize they are the one with the anger. Don't take other people's anger. You are responsible for your own feelings and behavior not theirs.

client responsibility
This is the goal of humanistic therapy - assume that the client will take total and complete responsibility for their lives. Be all you can be. The self can flourish and grow. You're appreciated, encouraged, you feel good. You have value. are caring people, see them in religion, priests, ministers, in spiritual arenas or in places that care for other people.

humanist - you don't like yourself, that's why you're fat. Nothing to do with positive reinforcement, is because you're validating the self.
Very popular
Not interested in making you feel good. Here to help you change your behavior. Change behavior to start feeling good. Change attitude then behavior or change behavior then attitude? Lose weight, feel better about yourself. Focus on the fact that you're fat, you eat too much! don't need a big debate about why you're overeating. Can't be eating in giant bowls! Control the environment.

All about the environment. No more eating in front of the T.V., No more eating after 7pm, go to the gym, etc.

Use positive reinforcement.

behavior modification
- get baseline, alter behavior, define behavior you want to change, the more specific about it the better. don't try to change too much too quickly, they don't know the frequency of the behavior, want data. What is the frequency, when where how. Don't care why. No debates about morals, the past,etc. you come to me to change your behavior! I'll teach you. After you change the behavior your attitude will change.

All about success, they're your cheerleader. Follow the program! Tailoring the program to the behavior, not the self/personal aspect. Not important to have a personal relationship with the client.

systematic desensitization
Was developed by Wolpe - proactive inhibition - notion of forgetting and memory - proposing that we can teach people to forget the trauma. Idea of counter conditioning - make it impossible for behavior to occur, put something incompatible in it's place. Ex. What is the issue with anxious people, a lot of fear, what if I substitute something incompatible with anxiety, can't go up if you're going down. Opposite of anxiety is relaxation. Cannot have anxiety and fear if you're relaxed. Based on stimulus.

Wolpe - systematic desensitization

Reciprocal inhibition
relaxation response is incompatible with phobic or anxiety response.

Stimulus training approach
focuses on reducing conditioned stress or anxiety to a stimulus

Ex. dress a spider up as a cartoon, slowly have the spider look more like a real spider until the spider look real. Idea is to slowly systematically desensitize a person.

Is based on the fact that you were neutral until you learned the behavior. You learned it by classical conditioning. The phobia is associated with the stimulus. Use classical conditioning to undo it. Pair relaxation to the stimulus.
Exposure therapy, all of this. Two aspects, one is implosion, the other is exposure. After the goggles/imagination/etc. you do exposure. You go out and do it. Make it okay in your mind then try it.

Self-modeling - take someone who is unable to do something, then do pictures and make it look like you can do it. Power to influence your life, you can do it! Theory of behaviorism is about learning and teaching.

self efficacy - bandura - social learning theorist - faith, confidence, belief that you can do something and that you've done it before. The doing.

They I = imagery, imagination
You imagine the thing you're afraid of with the therapist before you go to exposure therapy. Contemporary way today - we use virtual reality

See a bunch of people do it and are fine, you have less anxiety - social learning theory

immersion therapy - immersing yourself into that what you're afraid of until it loses its intensity, charge, etc.

aversion therapy
uses the form of punishment unpleasant stimulus
Used in more severe cases where positive reinforcement is ineffective and something more serious is needed.

Can use shock treatment for head banging patients like wear a helmet and water bottle squirts water in the face when they head bang.

Shock a person if engaging in bad behavior. Used with developmental disabilities, shock people into submission

Parents might put Tabasco sauce on fingers to prevent children from biting fingers.
Ex. person has bed wetting, child doesn't wake up, create response of waking up with buzzer. Moisture in pants, buzzer rings, disrupts sleep.

biofeedback - making unconscious conscious - train person to alter physiological state through reinforcement.

Anxiety management training - suinn - used to be present of apa and mayor of fort collins - use imagery for sports - uses imagery and imagination, can use implosion to imagine
focused on response, because of symptom substitution, no longer afraid of snakes, now you start stuttering so you need to do the core root of the problem, not the stimulus, just the response.
Guided imagery - client visualizes and re-experiences real-life anxiety event and is guided to reinstate emotional control through relaxation

Response training approach - focus on gaining control of the response

SIT - stress inoculation theory - should be sor - stimulus organism response -m ore cognitive - not the stimulus or response, it's the brain, the way you're thinking

cognitive - all of our problems are based on the way you think.
the way you think is the problem
people are distributed not by things but the views they take

Nothing good or bad but thinking makes it so

happiness and misery depends on disposition not circumstance

once people believe something is true they act as if it were.
Believed earth was flat, acted like it was flat.

Distorted though patterns - beck
cognitive distortions, think in an irrational way. Are they logical, honest, rational?

1. All or none thinking - I am a success or I am a failure, black or white

2. over generalization - self-fulling prophecy, learned helplessness - martin segalman - rat in cage shocked it, it gives up due to reinforcement history.

3. jumping to conclusions
try to read someone's mind, assume the worst

4. magnification and minimization
magnify failures, minimize accomplishments

5. Emotional thinking -
my behavior is bad, therefore i'm a horrible person. Has to do with shame and guilt. Difference between what I did and who I am. Mistakes are normal.

5. Should statements -
must, have to, suppose to, got to, need to, should be, has to be, etc.

Set of irrational, illogical thought patterns.

Always - more realistic - sometimes, often, occasionally, usually

Never - more realistic - sometimes, seldom, rarely, usually not

Why do people do this> The more you do this the worse it is? Very black and white.

Need - want, choose, prefer, wish, would like....don't need to.

Have to - Don't have to, choose to.

Definitely - perhaps, maybe, might, probably

all - many, most, some, a lot

None - few, not many

Good - like, approve, it's effective, it works

Bad - don't like, want, approve, work

Deserve - want, desire, expect, prefer

Can't - won't, refuse to, don't want to, decided not to

Awful - nuisance, irritation, problem, inconvenience

Know - assume, wonder, think, guess

is/are - appears, seems to be, perhaps, could be

Terrible- unfortunate, displeasing, unpleasant
Persecutor, rescuer, victim

Games people play
musical chairs,

Victim - kick me, i'm stupid, poor me. Many people solicit negative feedback from people, collect brown stamps. Something is wrong with me, validates it, solicits it. Wake up and take responsibility to your life, what you're saying to yourself.

Ex. Johnny says to dad, i'm really stupid, dad says you're not stupid, he goes on for an hour about how he's stupid, father says you're not stupid stupid. Then he commits suicide by soliciting all this stuff.

Persecutor -
Put down
find fault
blame others
get even
love to put people down, I told you so, set things up, something is wrong with you = i'm ok, you're not ok

Rescuer -
Only trying to help
What would you do without me
Stay away from this!
Ex. Mom gets between dad and the children. Mom thinks she's doing the right thing. Go to mom because mom can butter dad up to say yes. Have to go to mom first to get stuff to happen, she's in control. Later prevents children from having a relationship. Should say that's between you two.
Wife does everything for husband, husband doesn't know how to do anything.

Something is wrong with you -
peter pan syndrome - men that don't want to grow up. Wendy - be the mother....

Presecutor - often dad
Kid - johnny - victim
Dad had bad day, yells at Johnny, mom comes in to rescue, he helped me with stuff, dad jumps on mom, you're always protecting him! He needs to take responsibility! Mom is now a victim. Johnny is now a rescuer to keep dad from yelling at mom. It's my fault, i'm sorry. Happens often.

cognitive therapy - recognize how you think influences the way you behave