Psychology - 9 10 11 12


Terms in this set (...)

psychologist don't care what age something occurs, more concerned of the stage you're in. Different people go through different stages at different rates of growth and development.

The ontogony of the individual

Development prenatal - three trimesters - certain demands on the organisms. Ontogeny = development of the fetus from the zygote, as the sperm and egg create zygote, it becomes a fetus. Important = the Ontogeny of the individual

recapitulates - restates

This process from conception to birth restates the evolution of humankind, our development from the beginning of our species. Goes through the total evolution of everything we've experienced in our time at the planet.
Normal physiological process

Cephalo Caudal maturation - we develop head to tail, head is 1/3 of body when born, as we become adults it's 1/5. We develop this way.

Proximal Distal pattern - we develop from near to far, our core is developed before our extremities. We get hand-eye coordination later.

Normal physically development for a species. Ex. A bird in a robin's nest will sing a blue-jay song with a robin accent. What is preprogrammed to happen. Certain expectations that we have. Doesn't vary across cultures.

By the time you're halfway through life, the children are grown and gone. Half of your life still left to live. We spend 10 to 15 percent of life as a widow or widower and part of life as an orphan.
Bonding and attachment
Do not develop socially/appropriately without mother/other monkeys

bonding - at birth, you look at child, psychologically and emotional commitment, you are there for them, they are responding to you.
Ex. soldier away when child is born, that parent has not bonded with there child. Get to see the child a year later.

Attachment - Father or mother in war comes back, can now develop attachment but have not bonded with child.

Child adopted from overseas, can get attachment but not bonding.;
Swiss psychologist - interested in concept of cognitive development in children. Most important and respected position on psychological and cognitive development in children. School from united states is based on him.

Two concepts -assimilation and accommodating

Process of learning and improving our sophistication for cognitive development.

children are not little adults. Their not cognitively equipped.

Apistomology - field of philosophy study of knowing, how do we know that we know, did you learn it or did you always know it?

Blank slate - are we born with a blank slate in our brains and we take pictures and store them in our brain or is it we have a projector and we come born with preset knowledge. Computer with software vs computer that's wiped.

Five year old today compared to when you were five? How much more sophisticated are they? Are they more evolved?

Believes in orderly process and progress of stages, you can't skip stages.
interpret new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them. Mentally incorporate the world.

Bring things into the existing structure the way you understand them. Child learn the word bird, they think anything that flies is a bird.

Child learn word doggie, every 4-legged animal is a doggie.

Young - don't know anything yet
Change existing mental structures to explain new experiences. Modify thinking to accommodate the world.
Discrimination - realize that only birds are birds and there are specific types of birds.

Learns differences between dog and cat and horse.

What is the process?

Adaptation or cognitive development is a product of assimilation and accommodation.
Stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor -
1st stage - birth to 2 - internalize motor to mental, move towards object permananece, object continues to exist when it's not present

Concrete Operational

Formal Operational
Object Permanence
Recognition that objects continue to exist when no longer visible.

Children who don't understand this, can't understand that something doesn't just appear/disappear. Your dog has the same problem.
If a cat can learn it in 3 months, why does it takes humans up to 2 years?
Look how much further we go than cats? Why do we force children to grow up as fast as possible? We don't let them go through the natural maturation process.
You can't force someone to learn something they're not ready to learn.

Behavior theory y- don't wait to be ready, start teaching right away whether they understand it or not. All about training.

Piajah = all about education, do it when they're ready. Can't learn if they're not ready to learn.
Second stage of cognitive development. Ages 1 to 7. Key symbols

Improved use of mental images

All about symbols, Disney loves these kids. Dogs talk, finding nemo, cars that talk. Kids have a rich fantasy life.
Inability to see things from another person's point of view. Very egocentric in preoperational. World revolves around them. Appear selfish.
Attribute human qualities to inanimate objects like pet rocks, the movie CARS, electronic animals, gigapets
Tendency to focus on only one dimension of a problem. Hence bring back three red pots, only brings back a bunch of three pots.
Concrete operational
Third stage of cognitive development.
Ages 7 to 11
Key: Rules

Begin to understand concept of rules.

Mother may I, Simon Says, Shotgun!, Last one in's a rotten egg, not included, all sorts of rules. Issue - the don't understand abstraction. Ex. I'll give you a nickel for a dime because it's bigger, didn't understand value of money.
ability to coordinate several aspects of a problem at the same time.
Ability to visualize the reversal of an action. You can reverse something.
Awareness that physical quantaties remain the same even if appearances changes

Piaget's conservation task
Child agrees that A and B have the same amount of liquid.

Right before their eyes, you pour B into C and you ask which one has more. They'll say C (it's skinnier/taller). They're not understanding height or width.

Dots in a row vs cluster of dots. Which one has more (their the same) They'll say the line below. The longer one will win.
Formal Operations
fourth stage of cognitive development
Ages 11+

Ability to understand abstract concepts
Logical thinking

Time, space, love
Abstract thinking
Analyze according to themes
Generalize according to categories
Appreciate double meanings
Make comparisons
Inductive and deductive reasoning
Think of the future, past, present
Was instrumental in his contribution in the understanding of the psychosexual stages in childhood, the way the child was exposed to the eroticism to his/her body, you recognize your gender, masturbation, attraction, etc. Starts to determine from our personality. Personality is tied to biology of hormones and the impact of hormones on our sexual development. Various stages, can't skip, stage relevant, progress in a pattern. What does it take to be a man? A women? Advertisement impacts the way we think about this.

Two concepts - defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms - Freud
Fixation - stuck in a stage of development, you refuse to grow, it's easier to stay in that stage. Children fixate on a blanket, binkey, etc.

Regression - fall back to a comfortable stage.
See this with young kids when a new baby is born. They're no longer the center of attention. They revert to bed wetting and wanting to be held and being immature. Can occur at any age.
Left the nest, go to college, get a degree, world sucks, move back in with parents.
Elderly person with dementia, becomes childlike, children care for their parents as though their children.

Little Tommy says to little johnny, anyone who sleeps with a teddy bear is a sissy and a wimp. He tells his family to put it away so he can be a big boy. So they put it away. A couple months later, little sister comes home from hospital, he needs the teddy bear back. People regress when they're too stressed. They cry, suck their thumb, scream, etc.
Psychosexual stages
Oral stage
Anal stage
Phallic Stage
Latency Stage
Genital Stage
Oral Stage
Age 0 to 1
Erotic focus is mouth
breast feeding
key task is weaning

The only way you communicate is by crying. they cry because they're tired, hungry, wet, or they want love/affection. It's how they interact.
Sucking reflex - in weaning process, breast feeding, If the breast feeding occurs properly (without difficulty) it's not easy, can be painful and difficult, if the child is weaned too early, they don't find the right adaptation to make it work, the child later in life becomes sarcastic, hostile, bitter, etc. Person who is mad, angry, negative. Someone who has had breast feeding that went well, child weaned late, is more comfortable, less anxiety and stress.
Anal stage
Child realizes that crying is not effective.
Ages of 1 and 3
Expelling and retaining feces
Key task: toilet training

Parents fight about changing the diaper. Child sees this. Realizes that pooping can cause this.
Anally fixated are bankers.

Ex. Felix - severely toilet trained - very fresh, wants things a certain way, very prim and proper

Oscar - sleeps with pizza in his bed, is gross, can tell he wasn't severely toilet trained.

Save all the Halloween candy and sell it the rest of the year. Give out loans with high interest, save money.

One for you, two for me. Believe in possessive, controlling, demanding, rigid. You can eat off my floor, always clean.
Phallic stages
Ages 3 to 6
Oedipal and Electral complexes

Identify with adult role models

Children may begin to masturbate.
Oedipal and Electral Complexes
Erotically tinged desires for the opposite sex parent.
Boys = castration anxiety
Girls = penis envy

fantasy of running away with a parent/getting married to parent. Want to possess mom.
Problem - when they think of dad, they fear castration. What if dad knew that I was trying to take his mom away, sense of guilt. At some point, the anxiety, he'll identify with his dad.

Girls - women have penis envy. They feel that they want a penis and the only way they can have one by being pregnant by the father by having a male child. What happens = seeing children who attach themselves to the member of the opposite sex at first. They cry in the middle of the night and they demand that mom bring the water. Daddy's little girl, mommy's little boy.

How is it resolved? They identify with the same sex parent.
Latency stage
age 6 to 11
no erotic focus
identify with same sex friends

Key task - expand social contacts

Most children don't want to talk about sex, very uncomfortable with it, boys won't want to be around girls, think girls have cooties.

If a child is very precocious or curious - lack of supervision, being exposed to things they shouldn't
- lack of boundaries - you need to teach your child what's appropriate. Easily preyed on by people.
Genital stage
ages 11 +
Focus on genitals
preparing for work and marriage
key task is intimate relationships and working

Interesting stage, myths about masturbation, a lot of misinformation and confusing messages. Abstinence and sex education.
Two points of view - piaget and behavioral

Piaget's stages of cognitive development -
Series of maturation stages - child must pass through stages, rate of progress is determined by environment.

Sensorimotor - action and sensation only. Objects do not exist unless they're in the field of vision. Must develop object permanance Gradually child moves on.

Preoperaitonal stage -
2 to 7
first use of symbolic imagery, race cars, child can now think about object and activities. Still egocentric. Sees himself as the center of creation. Puts human qualities to inanimate objects. Child is learning about the world around him, thinking is becoming more complex, can't do logical tasks because they can only do one aspect of problems.

Concrete operations
Age 7 to 12
Forms of reasoning.
More than one aspect of problem.
Can solve conservation tasks.
Not abstract yet.
Can organize thoughts in new ways. Can do a mental image of a series of actions and the reversibility of the actions.

Ages 12 - Formal operations
understand space, time, causality
Can use logic. Can deductive systematic thinking, hypothetical terms. Combines all mental abilities.
Problem-solving. Exploring all possible solutions.

Two mental processes -
Assimilation and accommodation

Assimilation - new perception into existing mental concept. Concept of bird - can assimilate new perceptions.

Accommodation - modification of existing mental concept to a new mental concept. Modifying thinking to fit the world.

Intrinsic physical activity is the way they learn. Increase interaction with others. Social experience is an important way that children clarify thinking and express themselves more logically.

Basic principle - student needs an opportunity to learn vs formal teaching. Teacher helps each individual child at their own speed/stage of learning. Encourages them to think in active creative ways. Widely accepted view of cognitive development. Some say it's not enough without learning and experience.
Dependent on learning. Behaviorist - what knowledge the children do or do not posses. Teach knowledge.
Teaching - specific skill that kid hasn't been taught. What has kid not been taught. Kids often don't understand math. They don't have the cognitive structure.
Can present them with a traditional program or can program them a step at a time and can teach them.
Programmed instruction - teach kid the skills that he knows. Kid will be taught everything they need. Don't let kids experiment blindly. Environmental and educational shaping.
Stage Roles
images of men in advertising

Cowboy - cold, distant, alone, threatening, violent

winner, hold themselves back, withdraw, appear rigid, arrogant, invulnerable, composed, untouchable, unreachable, somewhat hostile, outward display of strength
interested in personality, how it develops from psychosexual development. Greatest contribution = defense mechanisms

Defense mechanisms
Erik Erikson
someone who appreciates foundations of freudian thought but is interested in the here and now

Psychodynamic is the unconscious past.

Erikson - move away from freudian thought, what happens after adolescence. What about after masturbation?

Motivational/conflicts - several conflicts in our psychosocial stages of development.
Psychosocial stages of development Erikson
What does a person through aging, what are the 8 stages of development

Trust vs mistrust
autonomy vs shame or doubt
initiative vs guilt
industry vs inferiority
identity vs role confusion
intimacy vs isolation
generativity vs stagnation
integrity vs despair
Different times through our developmental age we focus on one of the stages.

Trust vs mistrust
Infancy, need supportive nurturing environment, form attachment to parents.
Developmental task - feel safe and secure

Child senses if they're loved or not. Early stage is trust vs mistrust. Do they feel nurtured? Supported? Bonding and attachment? Very important to feel secure, safe, trust.

Children that don't develop this at 16 have horror stories of terrible things. They have a hard time to trust someone.

child early on develops sense of suspicoussness and concern of others.
2. Autonomy vs Shame and doubt
Age 1 and 3
Need sense of self-control and adequacy
First experience of independence
Developmental task - gain independence and self-confidence

freud = anal stage.

All stages of development occur at the same time.
3. initiative vs Guilt
Ages 3 to 5.5
Need to initiate activities
sense of purpose and direction
developmental task - explore the environment

Am I good or bad? Lots of energy in conflict with parent. No you can't do that , no don't go there, etc.

Amount of words and kinds of words are important. Lower class uses no more often. if the majority of the words are no it impacts your psych. You lack initiative, why try?

Ex. Child wants to be involved and to help. Dad has waxed the car, child uses dirty rag to try to help. Parents started yelling at him. Child says what did I do wrong, I was trying to help.

Adults take a five-year-old, males love to make a five-year-old cry. wins race against kid, make kid a good loser. Not sure why.

Important stage for a child, depending on feedback from environment makes a difference as to whether or not the continue. Ridicule destroys self-worth.
4. industry vs. inferiority
Ages 5.5 to 12
Need competence with peers
Belonging to groups
Learn how things work

Kids are in clubs, have a tree fort, latency stage - lack of interest in sex.
People join boy scouts, are involved in the brownies and the blue birds. Very important to develop peer competency. In high school later it's more important. Children must feel that they are part of the group. Believe friends are smarter than parents. Want to feel that are they successful or worthless. Do not humiliate in front of peers. is the worst thing you can do at this stage.
5. identity vs Role confusion
Need sense of identity
Experiment with goals and lifestyles
Form positive self-concept

Ado - adult essence - essence of adult. You have the building blocks of adulthood.

identity conflict - children aren't clear about feel a need to find out who they are hat they're going to be, cliques form. You knew what group you belonged to. Some people were in multiple groups. Theatre, preps, jocks, nerds, etc.

Kids dress like Madonna or Prince or whoever the latest person is. Why don't they get their own identity? Why do they model someone else? They don't know who they are? They try to be accepted by mimicking other people.
6. intimacy vs isolation
Early adulthood
Need close relationship and friendships
relationships with opposite sex
Form meaningful social relationships

interpersonal emotionally relationships, finding someone you love who loves you. Get married, get divorced. instability. Who you are relative to a relationship.

How do you develop a relationship if you don't trust the opposite sex. I give up on men. I'll be single forever. I'll focus on my career..

Issue - postpone dealing with this = ten years later you have to deal with the issues. Better to do it now. You get wiser as you get older if you have relationships. You learn from them. How do you know if you don't try. revenge flicks = do it to your boyfriend.

Planned, american - I marry you for what you can do for me. Fail because it's selfish

Tannen - Says you don't understand - communication is the issue - we don't communicate.

Red phone and green phone.

Men are 80% independent and 20% independent.

80% intimate and 20% independent

What happens
driving down the street. women says let's eat. man says not hungry. You never do what I want to do. Man said what the heck. Women say we/us/our family
Men - my dog, my car my my my.

men don't like to talk on the phone, go shopping, etc. Women are much more detailed.

fighting - what happened? Both independent - works fine. Both intimate - works fine. Most of the time you're on opposite scales. Most of the time we argue because we're opposite. Not communicating, different points of view.

Orange marry an apple. Better like apple pie, cider and sauce. Cannot make apple an orange or a grape. Want you to be like me! Can't do it.

An understanding of another person's way of being is a relationship. Not about changing or controlling the other person or possessing them. People destroy their relationship.
7. Generativity vs stagnation
Middle adulthood
Need to generate learning back to society
Working and parenting
Develop concern about the world

Erickson - sense of value we must feel that we're not just a taker in society. Graduate, got everything you want that you've worked for, you're 55, now what.... If you have all this stuff you want, what do you do? They're lonely, they're empty. What's my legacy, what am I leaving on this planet? Work for red cross, PTA, boy scouts, etc. Not just taking. Have to feel that we have purpose. We've done something to give back.
8. integrity vs despair
late adulthood
need to find satisfaction with life
review value meaning and purpose of life
Achieve personal fulfillment

Look at all the things you haven't done. Would've couldn't done. Not about being a taker, giving stuff back - fulfilling and meaningful life with integrity. how do we achieve this?

A lot of psychosocial aspects to development. Each stage has characteristics. Learn how to move through the stages and move on. Teach people the stages.
All developemntal stages occur at the same time there are tracts occur at teh same time
Piaget Cognitive - sensorimotor

Erickson - Psychosocial - Trust vs mistrust, autonomy vs shame and doubt.

Freud - psychosexual -
oral and anal
Early childhood
Piaget = peroperational

Erickson - Autonomy vs shame and doubt. initiative vs guilt.

Freud - Anal and phallic

3 to 7
Middle childhood
Piaget - concrete operations

Erickson - Industry vs inferiority

Freud - latency

7 to 111
Starts at 12 13

Piaget - formal operations

Erickson - identity vs role confusion

Freud - genitals
Young adulthood
Piaget - formal operations

Erikson - intimacy vs isolation

Freud - genital
Middle adulthood
Piaget - formal operations

Erikson - generativty vs stagnation

Freud - genital

50's and 60's
Moving through stages of freudian and other stages throughout the lifespan. More like phases than stages. Phases are always part of our development.
Ego above the ater = consciousnesses - rational

Below water = unconscious - irrational

Preconscious - superego - morality - part of our
reality principle - delayed gratification or postponement. Getting a degree takes five years, it might take ten years. You delay the gratification of spending money, party, etc. People as adults have a notion that you can't always have what you want, you work for your future
Pleasure principal - I want it now, today, no postpone, spend all the money. Party, go to the movies vs doing homework.
Morality principle - the shoulds have to supposed to must - live here. Appreciate that the psychodynamic - the three states fight each other f or control. They conflict. The ego does not like to be embarrassed, shamed, wrong, to fail. Id - doesn't care, no concern about anything but itself, no shame or guilt, just does whatever it wants.
Defense mechanisms basics
The mind has a capacity to invent mechanisms as maneuvers to prevent a person from experiencing from unpleasant emotions.

Ex. Remove or block or avoid thinking about uncomfortable, distressed, and upset.

Two major emotions to block are anxiety - fear of the future, what may or may not happen, rejected, abandoned, failure.

2. Depression - avoid thinking about the past. How guilty and shame we feel about what we've done, feeling bad about oenself.

Blocking anxiety and depression - avoid at all cost - use defense mechanisms.

most are used without you being aware you're using them. It's automatic. You don't think about it. Freud - Slips of the tongue - Freudian slip - you say something you didn't mean to say. Call boyfriend by your ex's name. Reveals issues about unconscious.
Just below awareness
Will come to conscious with effort
Person doesn't like shots - forgets dental appointment

Very common, you stop thinking about something long enough to concentrate on something else. Concentrate in class, suppress feelings about life challenges. Ex. You're hungry, need to go pee, etc. for the moment you suppress those demands to focus on the class.

Think about something you feel guilty about, you bring it up, it was suppressed not repressed.
Buried deeply in unconscious
Difficult to bring to conscious
motivated to forget what is painful

Person is sexually abused as a child - doesn't remember

Material that is buried deep in the basement. Don't remember until it occurs. Something will trigger it to come to the surface.

Difficulty - there's also false memories, children were accusing their parents of abuse, everyone was making the claims, now you need evidence, some people wanted to blame their issues on sexual abuse which caused their life to be a mess.

Get a massage - person starts to cry because they remember what happened.

controversy between the two - both of them exist - hard to tell which is which - you can plant false memories
Save face
avoid embarrassment
Prevent threat to well-being
Confront child - child will lie to protect self

Very common in children, blame imaginary friend. Everyone else did it, no ownership for their own behavior.
Acceptable interpretations
Cheap excuses
Justify mistakes or failures

Blame low test score on poorly written questions. Excuse for not having studied? Don't want to take ownership. Easier to blame others.

Common - we all use - sour grapes story - fox tries to get the crow to sing because he wants the grapes, crow is smart, won't do it, fox walks away, they were probably sour anyway.

Ex. How come we only watch your programs, because I can hit you, this is a good program (to avoid being smacked)

Everyday fair - we do this constantly - partly from main attribution error -everyone else is lying, everyone else has more control and power.
Feign illness, usually obvious
used to get attention
Used to remove threat

Child is sick on the day of the big test

Kids use this constantly
Special attention when you're hurt

Ex. Mash - Klinger- dress up as a girl trying to prove he was crazy to get out.

Can get to the point where you get fictitious disorders, patient pretenders, looking for love by playing like they have cancer for attention - is now an abnormal disorder - so ineffective - use children as a means of faking illness - use other people to get the love care respect that they want. See them also in pedophiles - prey on children due to inadequacies
Stuck in a stage of development
Failure to progress
manifest in behaviors
smoking, nail-biting - oral behaviors

Lynus - carries blankie around, pacifier, bottle, beer, ciggarette - eat excessively - need to chew, suck, etc. to feel secure
Fall back to a more secure time
Retreat to a younger age
Can occur at any age or stage

Sibling is born - first child returns to wetting self

Fall back to a time where they feel secure, graduate from college, move back in with parents, cry, throw a fit, etc.

Use too many defense mechanisms - they build walls - why don't you just get real, authentic, tell the truth, why do you play games? they lie when they don't have to. They avoid intimacy, getting close, because they're fearful and threaten that you might not like them. shallow, manipulative, controlling, you can't catch me, see me, get close to me.
Attribute own thoughts to others
Exaggerate faults in others
Think collectively

Child wants something - everyone else has one

Cheat on taxes

Person envies others because they think others envy them

Sexually frustrated person - interprets others gestures as sexual advances

Dishonest businessman thinks others are out to cheat him

Take your own behavior and place it on others, emotionally impulses, usually you blame others in a vague way. you minimize the undesirable aspects in yourself and maximize them in others.
Act out on a safer target
Take out frustrations
Overt, easy to see

Child is angry at parent, slams door

There's a target - kick the dog, hit the sister.

Ex. Act out your frustration onto a safer target, the door, lashes out a stranger, homophobia - harass gays, physically abusive to gays because of their own inadequacy. Why does it bother them? Take care of your own life.

At work, boss says you're not getting grant, is angry, yells at wife, starts yelling at kid, kid yells at dog, dog pees on floor.
Reaction Formation
Reaction to unacceptable desire
Opposite Extreme
"protests too much"

Very popular

Overt sexual desires - become religious fanatic

Reversal of the extreme that you feel, was a prostitute wants to be a nun.

Like the spouse but not the child. Extremely friendly and spoil child, patronize the child, trying too hard, they hate the child, they try to hide it by doing this.

Ex. Feminine tenancy but has a macho image. Reek of cologne, wear chains, etc.

People who are so concerned. Religion confiscates porn, keep it in the basement, read the porn later. Hypocrisy - Why?

Protests too much -
Sophisticated excuses
Shift focus from something painful
Academic, medical, philosophical

terminal illness - philosophize about death

Lecture number 43 - theorize, philosophize, etc.

Don't want to talk about death and dying so they talk about anything but the issue. A form of avoidance. Is sophisticated form of avoidance.

Poor grade - mean was this, standard deviation is this, range is this, etc. Giant philosophy of the exam measurements.
not admitting the trust, is a form of lying,
Disregard concrete evidence
Something too painful to face

Refusal to acknowledge death of spouse. Keep house the same as it was when the person died.

Denial about alcohol, gambling, spending, etc.
Alcoholic uses this, and projection, sabotage.

Cheating on spouse - we're just studying. Deny somethings going on when it is.
Have unacceptable desire
Express in socially acceptable way
Redirecting desire

Good defense mechanism. Take sexual energy and it comes out in another form. socially acceptable way of taking energy that would be misspent into something good.

Wild crazy person invented roller blading, wind surfing, extreme skiing.

Desire to hit other people - becomes a boxer.

Frequently fire fighters set fires. Pyromaniacs become fire fighter.

Freud - How do we take our unacceptable impulses and convert them. Aggressive = hockey, football, butcher, etc.

Hack at meat - Surgeon - butcher

Convert into acceptable. You like to kill and shoot people. Become a sharp shooter for the police. Hollywood - Steven Segal - When good guy becomes bad and you don't know who's who.

You like that too much. Too violent.

america - issue on war, we're a nation that drops the most bombs, has the most guns, kills the most people.

Professors - wanted to be actors - professors often feel they're stupid and try to compensate for that
Develop strength in one area
make up for weaknesses in another
Shift focus to strengths

Make poor grades in school - become a sports star

Four PHd's, MA's, etc. More letters after their name, tons of degrees, you see him and he's only four foot two. Super small but have a hummer that's red.

guy with no hands, play guitar with feet. Very common area.
Won't talk or interact with others
Individual, situation, society

Child holds breath to get something

Stop talking, get quiet, silent treatment. Try to manipulate you. I'm going to be a drain, drag feet, be unhappy, etc. Too bad, we're having fun. Punishing other people ,trying to manipulate others.
Associate self with importance
name dropping name brands
prop up weak ego

Carry a Gucci bag - shop only at Nordstrom

I live on hillside, own a Mercedes, shop at Nordstrom. Person who says I know the governor. Drop names by the school they go to, the brand they have, take someone who already has a name brand and try to associate themselves with that. Try to impress people constantly. Ego is weak. Think very little about themselves.

Old days - was very common - eating an animal for it's special properties. Eat bird to see better. Eat animal to improve speed. Bring in something about other object to become it - incorporation.
Refusal to accept reality
Making plans for winning sweepstakes in the future

Is there an excess in playing video games where it turns into a form of avoidance and escapism.
Methods by which we avoid depression and anxiety - negative, unpleasant states of consciousness - fear of future and fear of past.
Weakest of all concepts because it's hypothetical - like motivation, mood, etc. The worst.
No agreement on what constitutes personality.

Ex. An alien asks what is personality. Well it's the way someone acts/behaves/thinks/talks/how we know who that person is.

Have a great personality!

We don't know. Kind of like a horoscope. Typology. Classify people like plants. Each personality can be classified. Others say there's an unlimited number of personalities. What about multiple personality disorder. We don't even know if you can have one...

Thinks it's a problem - concept is often used to hurt people in court. Personality disorder - what does that mean? Can your kids be taken away?

When we first started learning about personality - Sheldon created body types - judge book by cover - argued that there's three body types.
Sheldon's body types
Endomorph - overweight, party animal

Mesomorph -
jock, unintelligent, popeye

Ectomorph -
thin, frail, nerd - olive oil

Measured wrist size, ankle size, etc. Can you judge a book by it's cover?

Phrenology - judge by facial features

We've met fat people that are not fat and happy. We've met skinny people that are not smart, etc. Really old psychology.
Other personality theories
Other theories - trade theory - not a certain type - we have certain traits and more/less of that trait.

Crayon box - born with same crayons, we use the ones we prefer more.

Genetic predisposition
Same parents - different from siblings. Due to genetic temperament. Then influenced by nature-nurture.

Kind of work we do - Holland - did the whole dictionary of occupational titles of the US - How do you choose a career. You want something that's compatible. He divided it into 6 types - Vocational Preference Inventory and Self-Directed Search. Compares your interest and values with other people in that field to see if you're compatible with that career choice.
Holland's personality Orientations

Realistic -
People who work with their hands, construction, building, farming, not in school, wake up super early.

conventional -
Work with computers, structured environments, secretaries. Can organize things really well.
Ex. Have 3000 people for a conference. They get airfare, hotel, loans, etc.

Investigative -
Biology, science, research, labs, professors, forensics., no social skills, can do one on one, not good in interpersonal interaction.

Enterprising -
Persuasion for money - attorneys, sales, business

Social -
Teaching, counseling, social workers, help people all day long, concerned about working with people and resolving crisis than things.

Artistic -
Theater, dance, poetry, painting

We area combo of these types. Trait theory - more or less of each one.
I-E Personality Traits
i - e = Social
i - E = Cognitive
I - E = Culture

introvert = extrovert
I-E personality traits
Social - Jung-
introvert and extrovert concept - two forms of personality

Introvert -
quiet, shy, withdrawn
Takes self too seriously
relationships difficult
Hide out in the background. More headaches. Think too much so they don't act. Undergoing - processes info but doesn't do anything/unfulfilled life.

needs interaction, talkative, hates to be alone, president of clubs, volunteer. More stomach aches. Do everything.

two different styles of personality
There are times when the introvert is extroverted and the other way around depending on the context. Put introverts in a group and they'll become extroverted together. Put their foot in their mouth. They talk before they think.

Cultural - Rotter Locus of Control

External control -
not in control of life, life just happens, fate, luck, chance. magic. it's who you know. It's opportunity. Doesn't matter who you vote for.

Internal Locus of control -
it's about you, your ability to manage and control your life. One vote can make a huge difference. No one gives you anything, you need to earn it.
self in control of life
own successes
own failures

Depends on circumstances - Test is a force choice test A or B.

Robin williams - extrovert - Jay Leno - enjoy being center of attention, tend to believe in external
Cognitive - Gittenger
preoccupied in self
thoughts, feelings
obsess, ruminate

If you give me the intelligence test of your friends, I can give you a personality profile. Take test and convert it into a personality test.

Personality test - problem is that it is self-reported, most people don't know themselves very well. They might not know how to describe who they are. Is based on surface level.

He said measure based on behavior on what you do not what you say you do. He would use subtests to measure personality.

Ex. Digit span part of intelligence test - Internalize can repeat them and can do it backwards, forwards, etc. They process info.

Externalizer - No idea

Then he did math subtest -
Internalizes - great at math
Externalizer -
No idea

Doesn't mean they're less intelligent.

Social types -can read the situation quickly, are often externalizes. Is good with pictures. Zone into environment.

Intelligence test - use for personalty - not influenced by your perception of your personality.
Carl Roger's Theory of Congruence and Incongruence
What a person aspires to compared to what they actually are.

Self-concept - ideal self
Actual Experience - real self

Whole theory is based on self. Two types of self. The person you want to be, working on becoming. People you admire and respect. Tells what you value and what motivates you.

Onion - self - someone gave us a name - who are you? Are we just a product of what we've faced and overcome or do we have a core?

When the real self and the ideal self are one and the same, they are congruent. Healthy. authentic, genuine, real.

When ideal and real are different - incongruent - i'm superman, dies after jumping off building.
On the same wavelength.
Love, autonomy, hate, control

Does personality have anything to do with the home environment in which you were raised? Is it your genetics or is it your home environment?
Why so much suicide in Alaska natives?

Most people don't want to die. They just can live the way they are now in their circumstances.

25 suicide attempts for every death.
Four times as many men kill themselves as women
Three times as many women attempt but do not die than men
Divorce men are three times more likely to kill themselves than married
Highest suicide rate - Caucasian male - single, widowed.

People who are isolated are more likely than those that are connected to the community. We need a sense of belonging.

Adolescents - 100 attempts per death

84 suicides a day and is increasing.

For every death there are 6 suicide survivors (family and friends) = 500 a day

Deadly triangle - an upset person, alcohol, a firearm, usually the person is angry or depressed, mean drugs and upset person.

New York and Washington have the lowest suicide rate due to effective programs.

Teenagers feel confused, misunderstood, trapped.

Most people that think about suicide don't want to die they just don't know how to live in their current life.

Intervention early is effective

many suicide references before committing suicide.

Many parents are afraid to ask their kids if they're thinking about suicide. The more you tell someone what they should feel, it takes away how they do feel. They point out why they don't need to feel that way. Better to ask. give them a life preserver. Acknowledge that they're in pain.

Usually as depression lifts people have energy to kill themselves.
Alaska suicide stats
126 each year
6th - highest suicide rate
100% - amount Alaska exceeds national rate
500% - amount of Alaska native men exceeding national average
5th - cause of death in AK

7 in 10 - suicide by gun
4 in 5 - is a male
4 in 10 - is 30 or younger
550 - number of Alaskans hospitalized each year for suicide attempts
49 - Number of other states that established a suicide prevention council before Alaska.
three types of suicide
Altruistic - good of society
- A monk sets himself on fire
- Suicide bombers

Egoistic - too few ties to community
- common in the U.S.
- loners, isolated, don't belong, don't feel connected, don't know neighbors

Anomic - community ties shattered
Also common in U.S.
- Lives destroyed, drop in stock market, day trade
- Can also happen by winning the lottery, overwhelmed by fame and fortune, rock stars, overnight successes.
- Their normal way of functioning has been disrupted. they can't handle it.
Stages of dying Kubler-Ross
Denial -
Refusal to accept face
Sense that it can't be happening to me, this didn't happen, you're not coping with shock, avoiding dealing with the loss.

Anger -
Sense of unfairness
Why me? I'm a good person! What about criminals!

Bargaining -
bargain for time
God - spiritual connection - just wait until my daughter graduates/gets married/etc. People die shortly after that usually.

- Self pity, sorrow, grief
Product of loss, coping with loss, not much you can do about it, acknowledge that they're dying

- meet death with peace
- no way out

More like phases. Can happen in a minute, months, years, can repeat phases.
your relationship and adjustment to loss

mourning -
processing of the loss, can take years, the first step to mourning is grieving, can't always tell that someone is mourning

Grieving -
mourning gone public, can tell if someone is grieving. The first step to grieving is mourning. Some people get stuck.

Recollect -
Usually at the funeral, people talk about the person's life.

Reprocess -
we do this the rest of our lives, is not about resolution. the feelings are still there.

Theresa Rambo - 6 R's
recognize, react, recollect, relinquish old attachments, readjust and reinvent.

Infancy is to childhood as grieving is to mourning
Psychology vs Psychiatry
Functional vs Organic
Behavioral model -
Learning -
environment, conditioning, modeling - come through training

Medical model
genetic, hormonal, structural, inherited issues, born with

Functional - learned problems
Organic - Biological

Two different orientations, they work together often but they're different.
Ph.D. or PsyD, - Doctorate of psychology.
Graduate school and 1 year residency
Ten years of training in mental health

medical school and 3 year residency
Can prescribe drugs, perform surgery
Three years training in mental health

Ph.D. is more academic/research/MA/MS. Do a thesis on master level and dissertation on graduate level. Dissertation is often empirical - they collect data. Only PhD teach at universities.

Psyd - Dissertation is more theoretical or clinical. Less research and statistics. Are going to be psychotherapists.

Get 4 years of psychology for Bachelor
2 years for master
Year 1 - coursework
Year 2 - Practicum, part of it in house with supervision and feedback. Second part of practicum - supervision in an internship.
After master - go to 3 year doctoral program -
Involves two years of coursework, last year is the same but with a practicum and internship. Also do a one year doctoral dissertation.
Graduate with Phd - Go do 1 year residency - another year of supervision before getting licenses.

Adds up to ten years of training in mental health, no other professional requires this.

Psychiatrists -
Interested in brain injury, epilepsy, organic basis of disease. What is the biological basis for the disorder?
4 years of undergrad in whatever, usually medical related health science related. Pass entrance exam. Then four years of medical school, anatomy, physiology, clinical work, many have not taken psychology courses. Then three year residency in mental health, involves medicine and medications.

Psychologist want to be able to prescribe drugs because they have more training than psychiatrist. They have more mental health experience and psychology.
Medical-Biological Model
Abnormality - an illness of the body
Symptoms - signs of a underlying problem
Syndrome - combo of signs and symptoms
Diagnosis - Best guess or hypothesis about what the problem is
Prognosis - Best guess as to the course or direction that this is going to take, get better, get worse
Treatment - interventions (drugs treatment, physical therapy)
Therapy - Psychotherapy, Chemotherapy
Cure - Coping, adapting, adjustment
Mental Illness
Mental Health
Mental Patient
Mental Hospital

mental - medical model
Assumptions of medical model
patient has little control
patient is not responsible
cure is in doctor's hands
diagnosis can be made from defined symptoms - becomes treatment of symptoms rather than preventing it from happening again

Tries not to moralize whose fault it is in medical model.
Biopsychosocial model
Medical-biological perspective
- A mental disorder is a physical illness
Has medial and psycholoigcal and social

Psychological Perspective
- A mental disorder is a learned behavior

Sociocultural Perspective
- A mental disorder is defined by society
Causes of mental disorders

Germ - infectious organisms
Genetics - Inherited
Biochemistry - Malfunction of brain chemicals
Neuroanatomy - malfunction of brain structures
Psychological perspective causes for mental disorders
Learned -
inadequate coping skills

Environmental -
trauma, threatening experiences

Cognitive - faulty interpretations, perceptions

Emotional -
inability to self-actualize, incongruence
Sociocultural causes of mental disorders
Zeitgeist - social climate of the time

Deviance - nonconformity with social norms - how you're different than the community

Social control -
nonconformity with society's values

Health Care Systems -
- Society's definitions of illness, insurance company's say what they pay for, not pay for, etc. Decisions without training.

Is there behavior different than the average person
Criteria of abnormality
1. Relative infrequency
- compared to population, statistical infrequency

2. Social Deviance -
violation of social norms, not behaving the way society thinks they should. Different expectations in different places.

3 Maladaptiveness -
Behavior fails to promote well-being. Makes them sick, alcohol, drugs, high-risk behaviors.

4. Personal Distress
- suffering, anxiety, depression, in pain
EGO Syntonic
Person is comfortable and congruent with self.
Everything is okay

Thinks they don't have a problem even though people are telling them they have a problem. Try to tell someone you have a drinking problem, I can stop anytime. Harder to help them. Need to be court ordered usually.
Ego Dystonic
Person is uncomfortable and incongruent with self.
Something is wrong
They seek help
Has over 300 disorders with criteria for symptoms and aspects of the disorder that are needed to be diagnosed. There is some overlap.

Comorbidity - can have more than one disorder at the same time.

Major psychological disorders
1. Anxiety
2. Somatoform
3. Dissociative
4. Mood
5. Schizophrenia
6. Personality

Disordeers - axis 1
Anxiety Disorders
Generalized anxiety disorder - worry all the time about many things

panic disorders -
number one disorder in U.S., 28 million, most anxious people with guns in U.S. Panic happens very suddenly and they have anticipatory anxiety of when it's going to happen, they feel like they're going to die and lose control. This behavior is often associated with what they were around, then they avoid that environment. Their world becomes smaller and smaller.

agoraphobia - fear of fears, most common fear. fear is a primary emotion but what you fear is learned. Afraid of open spaces, start avoiding what they're afraid of, reduce their activity, end of living at home.

ptsd -
one of the worst disorders, person is in a living hell, it haunts them and takes over their life. You look fine.
most popular anxiety disorder. Need two things for PTSD.
Precusor - acute stress disorder - occurs during first month following tragic event.

1. Person has to be exposed to a near death experience
2. Have to be rendered helpless

3 more
1. Intrusions - keep thinking about the event as if it's happening all the time.

4. avoidance - avoid thinking about it, actively avoid talking about it, going near it, deny, repress, suppress but it keeps coming back

5. Hyper level of arousal - high startle reflex, nervous, anxious, can't sleep, emotional dis-regulation - sense of trust and safety is shattered, you're weak and vulnerable. Things in the environment cause you to relive it. Then you have nightmares

Timing makes it posttraumatic - after a month if it still occurs it's PTSD.

Ex. Going to Hawaii, ready to go, fly over the inlet, plane crashes. Trying to unbuckle, get out. The whole time you're saying i'm on a beach, not in a broken plane. The ego hides and watches the whole thing. You can't cry, you're busy surviving. You get rescued, two months later that person that watched it comes out and redoes the event. Happens with soldiers as POW's.

obsessive-compulsive disorder
obsessive -repeating and thinking about something over and over, can't let go of what you're thinking about. Rituals - can't step on a crack . Takes two hours to leave the house. Must check and double-check. Thinking about it. Very organized. All about security, do the rituals in a certain order to keep them safe. Try to get everyone to do the same way.

Behavior - the compulsion - engaging in the behavior

Problem with obsessive-compulsive
Used to be called neurotic
Neurosis - based on fear
fear impacts your life

These are axis 1 disorders
five axis -
Disorders are shorthand for what's going on syndrome etc. of communicating with other mental health professionals

psychotics - 2 + 2 = 5, live in castle
neurotics 2 + 2 = 4 but they worry about it, they can't leave things alone

all based on fear and worry excessively so, dominates life, becomes a problem.
a specific target
Thousands of phobias
Common - acrophobia, chlaustrophibia, aquaphobia, signaphobia, afraid of dirt, rats, snakes, bees

Howard Hughes - had germ phobia and obsessive compulsive.
Somatform Disorders
manifesting psychological disorders in a biological way.
If you have a physical illness you're more likely to have people be nicer to you and have special treatment.

Conversion reaction
Have a psychological problem, convert to a biological problem, is not a real biological problem.

Person who can't walk, no reason why they can't walk, have to save a child at the end of the movie, they can move! Laryngitis before a big concert. Most people mean conversion reaction instead of psychosomatic.

Somatization Disorder
Aches and pains in every part of your body, they complain about everything not working. In so much pain, arthritis, headaches, stomachaches, hip is out. This is a normal person who has a ton of stuff going on.

Pscyhosomatic disorder -
You have a physchological problem, convert it to a biological problem, becomes a REAL biological problem.
Ex. stress - turns into high blood pressure, now need treatment for blood pressure.

the worry well, anxiety, worry too much. Buy tons of one a day, centrum, every vitamin and cough medicine ever. Medicine cabinet has tons of crap in it. They worry about things they don't have. They're needy and dependent and focus too much on their body. They're well but their compulsive about being sick, it's all about their body. They go to great lengths to not be sick.
Dissociative Disorders
Axis a - Clinical Disorders

Dissociative identify disorder
(multiple personality disorder
Most popular right now
Alters - distinct personalities, usually a defense against trauma, chronic pattern of person taking on a different personality. This is imaginary friend if the kid becomes the friend. Ex. parents are being divorced, kid shifts to a different reality, Play with dolls, imaginary friend, you stay in that environment.
How the mind numbs itself to things it doesn't want to deal with, when defense mechanisms aren't strong enough.

Disssociative Amnesia
Person blocks off portions of the event. Gets confused with alzheimers.

Dissociative Fugue
A flight - flee the situation, see this in war. House is swept up by a flood or hurricane, they wander not knowing where they are or who they are. In psychological shock.
Mood disodrs
second most popular

Depressive disorder
depression - insidious, dangerous, painful, self-inflicted. Four aspects to depression
1. loss - job, loved one, pet, spouse, child, any major loss, triggers depression response
2. Sense of hopelessness and helplessness about the future, always going to be this way, nothing you can do about it
3. more serious aspect of depression - attack on the self - can lead to suicide. Is like locking the door and throwing away the key. Soon you're locked because of your own doing. Downward spiral, shipwreck of the soul, hard to resolve.
4. powerless to do anything about it, very dangerous place to go, deadly

Bipolar disorder
Used to be called manic depressive
Mania - dribble ball shoot never pass the ball, not a team player, play all game like it's the superbowl. Too many irons in the fire, take on more challenges but don't finish.

Manic depressive cycles between real high and excited to depressed and suicidal within hours or days. You never know how you're going to find them, they're moody. Require medication such as lithium, can't regulate emotions.
misunderstood, people are frightened, it's a pschotic disorder,
loss of contact with reality
delusions, hallucinations. Introverted, live in their own reality, live in a world we don't understand. Talk to themselves, preaching, doing odd stuff.
Does not mean split-personality. That would be a dissiative disorder multiple personality disorder. Why are they confused?
Because Schizoid means split and phrenia means mind. It's just a split between mind and emotion, they're disconnected, what you think and what you feel are two different things. Laugh like a hyena, scream for no reason, etc.

Exaggerated form of suspicious that everyone's out to get them.
Though disorder

Emotions are not connected to mind. Laughing and crying.
emotional component

Body - like the tinman - put them in a pretzel and they'll stay like that or they're the opposite like scarecrow- no bones. Could be very rigid.
body component

Grab bag of all the ones above, any and all at any given time.

Person had schizophrenia but has not shown symptoms in awhile.
Ex. Graduate students went to the psych hospital and checked themselves in. Professor had to get them out. Hospital said they had schizophrenia in remission.

Acute reaction -Acute = person has this disorder suddenly in response to something and the prognosis is good that you're going to recover soon or early.

Chronic -
Person has had the disorder for a long time/has had it for a lifetime, prognosis is not good

Reactive -
Similar to acute -
Response to an event.

Process -
More chronic, person is likely to have this for a long time
Axis 2 disorders
Personality disorders
Style of behavior that becomes problematic n your daily living, 20 25 personality disorders. Can be very problematic

Someone who is passive, submissive, requires a lot of reassurance. Batman is narcissistic, Robin is dependent. The sidekick.
Preoccupied with abandonment, rejection, hurt by criticism and disapproval, can't do anything on their own without support or approval.

Most dangerous of personality disorder
Aggressive, irritable, kill you in a heartbeat, no empathy, no clue of what it's like to be a victim, kind of like a reptile.
Often have a very amoral character, end up with problems. As a child is oppositional defiant disorder, say no all the time, very difficult. Becomes conduct disorder- stealing, fighting, truancy, going to juvenile homes.
Around 18 - becomes a criminal, rape, robbery, murder, cold, dark, empty, usually wind up in jail, no remorse, don't usually get better.think rules don't apply to them

Cost a lot of time and money. Hard to work with. Their identity is diffused, they take anything you do personally. They don't know who they are. Late to session, you don't like me! I've heard you're the best therapist in the world! When someone praises you like that watch out. Bulimia, anorexia, hysteria, throw a fit in a diner, very unstable. They don't learn.
Ex. come to therapy, I got a job! Oh great! I just lost it. Why? I slept in. But guess what I got a dog! how are you going to take care of it! Then they ask what kind of person on you. They blow all their chances. Don't loan them your money, your car, etc. They're learning program is turned off and they have no identify of who they are and who they aren't. Identity problem. 80% don't get better. Pattern of this behavior because they don't know where they start and stop, they're like a cloud. Very manipulative.

Very popular in america
TV programs - Archie, the Fonz on Happy Days, Alex from Family Ties, Tom Cruise movies.
Think the whole world revolves around them, they're entitled, they' use people, think of just themselves, conceited, self-centered. How's your son doing. I'm mad at my son because I wonder what people think of me! It's about her not her son. They want to be the center of attention, they don't listen to what you say and they convert what you say to them, you're the only person in this room. Is the American ideal. Scienfield.
Personalty disorders
cluster a -
Mad, odd, eccentric
Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal (Kramer, thought disorder)

cluster b - bad - dramatic, emotional, erratic -
antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic,

cluster c - Sad- anxious, fear
avoidant, dependent, obssessive-compulsive
Sexual disorders - part 4
4 categories

Sexual identity

sexual interaction

sexual object

sexual dsyfunctions
sexual identitty
transgender -
People that their biology and psychology doesn't match. Born psychologically with female but has male genitals. Child is bathed in wrong hormone to their biological characteristics. Often discriminated against, shame, guilt, etc. Often mistaken as being transvestites. It's about gender not sex.

transvestite -
vest - changing your clothes -
often referred to as crossdressers
often enjoy dressing in clothing of opposite sex, it excites them. Why? Very rarely do men come in asking for help that crossdress. Husband and wife, married for several years, have kids, go through a divorce. Attorney for mother asked psychologist why is he crossdressing, is this a healthy male? Should he have custody? Be careful....

Normally harmless. Famous - rocky picture horror show

gay - biological issue, not a choice, you are or you aren't. we are all gay, how gay are you. These are traits/dimensions, some have little of it, some have a lot. When do you cross the line to being gay or not being gay, we all have masculine and feminine tendancies.
Sexual interaction
voyeurism - to see, likes to watch and look. Might start with an x-rated film. build cameras in showers, peoples homes, etc. get excited by watching others. Can get carried away. Watch partner with another person.

We see a lot of voyeuristic stuff in tv, lady in bikini selling tires, issue of the no bra look, people that are obsessed with certain parts of their body

exhibitionism -
the number one sexual disorder of the us. 1/3 of all sexual disorders
People expose themselves to others
Very common, males in particular. Females flashing people down the road...
Voyeurs like exhibitionism, one wants to expose, one wants to see.
Ex. dressing provocatively, hanging out in their underwear, going into hot tub nude, etc. Whole scale of this, modest to extreme, freedome in physical comfort and exposure

Found with masochist
marqui de sade - frenchman who was into inflicting pain on willing victims, bondage and disciplines or sadist and masochist
What happens is that people start with spanking, slapping, hitting, bondage, blindfold. Can get carreid away to whips, chains, punishing, torturing, hot wax, driving nails into genitals, can get very aggressive to the point of enjoying necrophelia.....

Most sadist are interested in inflicting pain and torture, pain, screaming, the response. Some people like being punished.

The receiving end, enjoys being punished. No one enjoys/want to be raped. Is different than masochism. Masochist enjoy being taken over, controlled, etc. rape is not the same thing. Rape is where it's completely out of your control, is about a total disregard and neglect in your welfare. Sadist masochist are focused on pleasure/pain at willingness o the masochist. When it's no longer a choice it's rape.
Sexual object
a special attraction to an object or something. People who like to touch people in crowded places. Most fetishhes are foot, breast, leg, underwear. They catch their sexual energy and focus to an object. Object might become a child. Child is preferred object, does not care about the emotions, is used for sexual pleasure, have inadequate personalities, can't related to adults. Easier to manipulate and use children because they dont' have to have a relationship.

Once a pedophile always a pedophile. Starts very early in life 8 or 10, already molesting other children. Child starts molesting kids until 21 oe 25 when they're arrested they've molested 50 children. Children then need therapy. Incest - family members involved, most children are abused by people they know. They have to register even after jail. The only way to stop them is never let them be alone with children. Mothers have to pay attention.

Function of two things -
precosious - know way too much about sex before they should - is because of

lack of boundaries between private touch personal touch etc. Didn't teach them about self and self-respect/cannot touch them without permission

Second - lack of supervision - mothers are responsible for watching their children, you don't leave your child with a male babysitter.

beastiality - sex with animals
internet - every sexual behavior you can think of
nothing better than having a relationship with someone that you love/loves you
you have a problem

sex with the dead
not many willing victims
Alaska - have this problem - hypothermia - strip your clothes off - lost thermal control

Autoerotic asphyxiation
scarfing - cut off circulation - often found hang in their bathroom - game - choke themselves - game of knocking people out - as they get older they do scarfing for sexual pleasure - many adolescents play knock out game
Sexual dsyfunctions
had since birth
biological origin, organic
bed wetting since birth

behavioral origin

Ex. bed wetting after toilet training

learned vs had it since life
Sexual dysfynctions
male -
primary erectile dsyfunction
never been able to keep an erection in life

secondary erectile dysfunction
happens at least once,e can't keep a erection, happens with old men, used to have one, can't have one now

premature ejaculation -
young males -

all sex problems - four letter word - talk 0 talk with each other to work this out

primary orgasmic dysfunction -
never had an orgams

secondary orgasmic dysfunction
used to have orgasms but not anymore (rape, domestic violence, post partum

functinoal vaginismus
painful sex

what are some terms for sex
sexual issues
Most difficult to change to easiest

sexual identity
most difficult to change, are you male or female? Not something you change

sexual orientation -
do you love men or women or both, not something you change

sexual preference
is learned culturally determined, what arouses you, is often learned via culture or environment

sexual role
do you engage in masculine or feminine behavior - product of learning, is about your personality

sexual performance
talking about the plumbing, do yo achieve sexual arousal and orgasm, erectile dsyfunction, nonorgasmic dsyfunction,

low arousal - low interest in sex - hypoarousal - may be due to many issues

sexuality can be problematic
how do you become a good consumer, how do you choose a good psychotherapist? What do you ask? 1/3 of us will have issue that warrants pschotherapy.
Everyone has problems. We are problem solvers. As we get rid of problems others pop up.

Many people think psychotherapy is paying someone to like you or to listen to you. In reality, professionals are objective. Friends are not.

The only normal people are the ones you don't know very well - we all have problems.
medical therapy -
considered not a psychotherapy because it involves chemotherapy and pscyhopharmacology drugs and meds as a means of conditions to minimize the symptoms, does not cure.

Terms -
patient - do you call someone a patient or a client? We have a prejudice against people with psychological problems when people that seek therapy are the most sane and normal people. Negative attitude towards people getting therapy.

mental illness -
a typical concept, part o the medical model

observable signs of unconscince dynamic, often treating symptoms but not the cause, you get rid or one symptom then another pops up because the cause is still there, cause can often be prevented. Medicine is more downstream theory - people upstream are falling into river, medical system is pulling people out of river instead of figuring out why people are falling into the river in the first place.

A constellaiton of symptoms and signs that group together

best guess hypothesis about what the problem is, what it is and what it's not, didorders overlap

best guess for course of disorder

shock treatment - voltage levels are small and controlled - there's anxiety associated with it, can be effective for chronic depression, people who have not responded to meds and therapy. Is temporary, last six months to a year and has many side effects.

Lobotomy - remove parts of the brain, usually only when there is a brain dsyfunction like a tumor. the brain is fragile and we don't' know much about it.

only responds to physiological aspect not emotional cognitive or behavioral, people get tired of side effects. Alters personality in a permanent way, has consequences. Issue of pharmacy company are corrupt sometimes. There's political issues with medicine and pharmacy.

Medicine is practice, is not certain, is a function of the practicioner, the quality of their skill and knowledge and ability, what the disorder is and what to do about it. Many physicians would like to think there's a right treatment for every disorder but some diagnosis everyone with the same problem. A lot of controls in medicine and legal issues and insurance companies, practicing with one arm behind their back due to restrictions of what they can and can't do.
Psychodynamic therapy
Freudian -
the goal of successful psychotherapy is changing the extreme suffering of the neurotic into the normal misery of human existence -

We believe that we should all be happy all the time so people take drugs. It's not sunny every day but some people take pills to try to stay happy all the time.

notion of three ego states and how they fight for position
ego - reality
id - pleasure
superego - morality

insight therapy - trying to get the client to have some level of insight about their issues, information they're thinking is blocked, psychoanlysis tries to unblock or break down the patients resistances, usually has a lot of defense mechanisms and resistance to the truth about themselves, usually because they're afraid of the result. Might be too painful to revisit.

free association
client says whatever comes to mind, therapist might give them a word, what do you think of when you think of mother, to try to dredge up information that is hidden in the unconscious. information that is suppressed

dream content
manifest content and latent content, record your dreams, go through and analyze it with you for meaning of the dream - manifest content, they piece together the latent meaning. the stuff you're not telling them

resistance -
product of defense mechanisms and protection of ego from shame, guilt, unpleasant feelings about fear/anxiety/depression/guilt/shame. Person does a lot of resisting to not talk about something they need to confront. They might have you focus on something you're not thinking about for an aha experience so you have insight about what the issue is, they might guide you to look at an area that you're not willing to look so you can have insight. Some people don't like tor review the past, the past is the past, can't change it, still have the problem. Some would argue that what good does it do to rehash the things when doing that is just a wast of time because insight doesn't solve the problem and you're wasting time justifying the problem in the past. It takes a long time, three years or more and is expensive. Often see actors and actresses have psychoanalysts. At what point do you become that character? Point is that the psychoanalyst -- lost favor in united states, reason is sense of immediacy, we don't have the time or money, want to focus on the present, what can we do about hte beahvior now.

Issue of transference -

the analyst encourages and facilitates transference -
means that when patients come in they see the therapists as the person they're having trouble with. They practice and take it out on you. Practicing through role play the issues they have yet to resolve. Is supported and encouraged. It's part of the professional dimension to pschoanalysis, allows therapist to be a fly on the wall to observe how they act, you can see their anger and frustration
A good marriage therapist does not listen to them fight... there to learn new skills on how to fight fair and communicate and resolve problems. A good opportunity for client to express issues and therapist to observe and participate by being the target of the issue.

problem - unethical, unprofessional, can be illegal.
Therapist starts to take out their issues on the client .
Ex. A therapist has sex with a client. Easy for a client to fall in love with therapist because therapist looks like they have all the answers. They don't (high divorce and suicide rate). Patient often says I wish my husband was like you, you listen and talk and hear. If therapist does not understand boundaries they might begin a relationship with the client, telling personal problems to the client, client becomes there therapist. You can lose your license to practice. Happens often.

Also includes disliking your client because you are prejudiced, they're obese, they're drinking, doing things you don't approve of and you get angry.

Ex. graduate students - end of semester they want to prove their good therapists they want their clients to get better before final week, clients aren't ready. Students get mad at client for not moving fast enough.

Whenever your personal issues interfere with the client profiting from the therapy. If this happens, refer client to other therapist/see therapist themselves.

Why should psychologists be held to a higher standard than layers etc? People are vulnerable, especially people that have boundary issues or have been sexually abused. Don't take it personal, don't get involved before during or after therapy.

you act out in the room
after observing, switch roles
switch again - how do you feel as your husband?
important in trying on to practice and simulate what it might be like at home or work with you person to learn new skills.

often occurs institutional settings
sad - person who has various cognitive deficits or emotional deficits and people steal from them and take advantage of them. Might rape them, do things to them, etc. A way to train people that could be preyed on, teach them what to do when this happens. Children in school - a play - teach people some mental issues ,how to say no to sex, drugs, alcohol, etc.

Method of psychotherapy
Freud - studied this to get into unconscious
self-hypnosis is all hypnosis
person allows themselves to be hypnotized, cannot do something you wouldn't normally do. Get into movie or not.
Problem - is often used - man seduce client with this - usually happens put hypnosis on trial rather than the person who used the hypnosis. It's not weird, it's a form of relaxation where people are suggestible. issue is the conduct, no the hypnosis. Most people don't understand it.

Psychodynamic overview -
is an sight therapy
breaks down resistance so person can have insight into dynamics of their ego states and how they are preventing them from being free of their neurosis their fears their anxiety their guilt.
Many people have a lot of baggage. We carry it around with us. People that go to pschoanlysis - dredging up past material is focused on the past.

psychoanalysis -
talk therapy, person on the couch, therapist sits behind you, a process in the therapy,
1. couch
2. free association
3. dream content
4. resistance
5. transference

when a person goes to therapy one of the first things they do, they recognize that they have issues and go to an admission counselor who determines what the problem is, intake counselor decides what the issue is, then are referred to a therapist who sees you two or three times or if it's long term they'll refer you to a specialist.
Transactional analysis
more cotemporary freudian concept, average person understands ego state better.

Fredudian view is replaced with view
ego = adult
superego = parent
id = child
= neoFreudian

Different ego states we all carry with us. Goes into discussing how these occur on a day to day basis, how we communicate, how we interact.

Balance transaction - when each person is talking to the aspect of the other person that is responding. The appropriate ego state.

Ex. parent = kids are so smart
parent 2 - they sure are!
two parent ego states talking to one another, is normal, natural

Adult - my brother is acting so strange lately
adult 2 - why don't you talk to him about it

If you ask the time and they say why don't you wear a watch - parent - child message. Asking the time, not the lecture...

Ex. I got an A on my exam today - child message - illicting a parent message - that's great I knew you could do it. is normal. couples do this often.

Crossed transaction -
when one aspect is different than the other.

Ex. I would like pizza tonight - adult -
Parent - pizza is all fat, you need to lose weight. Like it's their job to take care of you.

Some people only respond out of one state.

Child - I got an award for my work! trying to get a parent message.
Why do you always get the awards? - child message back, whining.

Two people are talking, let's skip school and have fun! yes - child -child

Could your parent make an angel in the snow? Some would, some would not. Some are stuck in parent role, other roles are contaminated. Focuses on interpersonal dynamics.

Child - let's go skiing for the weekend!
parent - don't you have a paper due on Monday - critical parent not nurturing parent.

As you learn more, each circle has a parent adult child within the circle, subcategoreis for each ego state.
Humanistic therapy
carl rogers theory on self theory - was a humanist - in the 60's and 70s humanism was a big force in psychology, concern about the self. taking responsibility of the self. The idea of congruence and incongruence. and ideal self and real self.
Very common in humanistic - very good at communicating because they're great listeners. They say very little. Don't presume to tell you what to do, you live your own life. Don't take responsibility for their lives.

comfortable with themselves

Very good at communicating because they're insightful, focus on congruence and incongruence.

nondirective -
they are not going to direct the therapy, you determine the way the therapy goes. Let you own you stuff, no excuses. What do you plan to do about it? People get upset when someone puts it back on them.

Unconditional positive regard
They make you feel love, respect, validated, confirmed, supported. Like grandparents. They don't judge you, don't get uptight about it. A lot of listening. Not in a teaching mode, in receptive listening mode.

In their presence, the environment makes you feel good about being yourself. All about the self, self-esteem, self-actualization, self-confidence. Self can flourish. Their attention is on you, they don't answer the phone, undivided attention, you feel special. More good in you than bad, recognize that, celebrate it.

Very honest, sometimes painful. They won't lie, very direct and supportive. Not interested in resistance or what's bad and wrong with you, what's right with you. Own your behavior.

Problem - not going to tell you what to do. Not going to give you advice.

get real! - authentic -
honest, down to earth, forthright, what you see is what you get, no games, no pretending, comfortable with who they are. Makes you feel comfortable about who you are because they're not making judgement about you, they don't assume anything.

You cry they cry, you laugh they laugh
they feel what you feel. I feel depressed, seems like you're depressed. A true therapist would say sounds like you're depressed but i'm not sure if you're sad or unhappy. They clarify to what you're wanting to say instead of mimicking what you say. They explore this with you. Walk a mile in your shoes. They are congruent. You know that they know and you both know that they understand what you're feeling. You have an understanding.

A skill we all could learn to use. Like a mirror, whenever someone is angry, you hold up a mirror. They have to take responsibility for their behavior. People use anger to manipulate and control. Kind of like tag. People like to make you angry and off balance.

Ex. client has fight with wife, wants to have a fight with therapist so he can drink. Sounds like you're angry today...I'm angry at you! Idea is that i'm not going to take on his anger so he can feel justified and go drinking. Issue is, how to handle this. Have statements

Sounds like you're upset, perhaps you're angry about that, perhaps there's something you want to talk about that. Don't get into the personal stuff. Put the mirror in their face. Eventually they realize they are the one with the anger. Don't take other people's anger. You are responsible for your own feelings and behavior not theirs.

client responsibility
This is the goal of humanistic therapy - assume that the client will take total and complete responsibility for their lives. Be all you can be. The self can flourish and grow. You're appreciated, encouraged, you feel good. You have value. are caring people, see them in religion, priests, ministers, in spiritual arenas or in places that care for other people.

humanist - you don't like yourself, that's why you're fat. Nothing to do with positive reinforcement, is because you're validating the self.
Behavior therapy
Very popular
Not interested in making you feel good. Here to help you change your behavior. Change behavior to start feeling good. Change attitude then behavior or change behavior then attitude? Lose weight, feel better about yourself. Focus on the fact that you're fat, you eat too much! don't need a big debate about why you're overeating. Can't be eating in giant bowls! Control the environment.

All about the environment. No more eating in front of the T.V., No more eating after 7pm, go to the gym, etc.

Use positive reinforcement.

behavior modification
- get baseline, alter behavior, define behavior you want to change, the more specific about it the better. don't try to change too much too quickly, they don't know the frequency of the behavior, want data. What is the frequency, when where how. Don't care why. No debates about morals, the past,etc. you come to me to change your behavior! I'll teach you. After you change the behavior your attitude will change.

All about success, they're your cheerleader. Follow the program! Tailoring the program to the behavior, not the self/personal aspect. Not important to have a personal relationship with the client.

systematic desensitization
Was developed by Wolpe - proactive inhibition - notion of forgetting and memory - proposing that we can teach people to forget the trauma. Idea of counter conditioning - make it impossible for behavior to occur, put something incompatible in it's place. Ex. What is the issue with anxious people, a lot of fear, what if I substitute something incompatible with anxiety, can't go up if you're going down. Opposite of anxiety is relaxation. Cannot have anxiety and fear if you're relaxed. Based on stimulus.

Wolpe - systematic desensitization

Reciprocal inhibition
relaxation response is incompatible with phobic or anxiety response.

Stimulus training approach
focuses on reducing conditioned stress or anxiety to a stimulus

Ex. dress a spider up as a cartoon, slowly have the spider look more like a real spider until the spider look real. Idea is to slowly systematically desensitize a person.

Is based on the fact that you were neutral until you learned the behavior. You learned it by classical conditioning. The phobia is associated with the stimulus. Use classical conditioning to undo it. Pair relaxation to the stimulus.
Terms - video 3 15 min
Exposure therapy, all of this. Two aspects, one is implosion, the other is exposure. After the goggles/imagination/etc. you do exposure. You go out and do it. Make it okay in your mind then try it.

Self-modeling - take someone who is unable to do something, then do pictures and make it look like you can do it. Power to influence your life, you can do it! Theory of behaviorism is about learning and teaching.

self efficacy - bandura - social learning theorist - faith, confidence, belief that you can do something and that you've done it before. The doing.

They I = imagery, imagination
You imagine the thing you're afraid of with the therapist before you go to exposure therapy. Contemporary way today - we use virtual reality

See a bunch of people do it and are fine, you have less anxiety - social learning theory

immersion therapy - immersing yourself into that what you're afraid of until it loses its intensity, charge, etc.

aversion therapy
uses the form of punishment unpleasant stimulus
Used in more severe cases where positive reinforcement is ineffective and something more serious is needed.

Can use shock treatment for head banging patients like wear a helmet and water bottle squirts water in the face when they head bang.

Shock a person if engaging in bad behavior. Used with developmental disabilities, shock people into submission

Parents might put Tabasco sauce on fingers to prevent children from biting fingers.
Ex. person has bed wetting, child doesn't wake up, create response of waking up with buzzer. Moisture in pants, buzzer rings, disrupts sleep.

biofeedback - making unconscious conscious - train person to alter physiological state through reinforcement.

Anxiety management training - suinn - used to be present of apa and mayor of fort collins - use imagery for sports - uses imagery and imagination, can use implosion to imagine
focused on response, because of symptom substitution, no longer afraid of snakes, now you start stuttering so you need to do the core root of the problem, not the stimulus, just the response.
Guided imagery - client visualizes and re-experiences real-life anxiety event and is guided to reinstate emotional control through relaxation

Response training approach - focus on gaining control of the response

SIT - stress inoculation theory - should be sor - stimulus organism response -m ore cognitive - not the stimulus or response, it's the brain, the way you're thinking

cognitive - all of our problems are based on the way you think.
cognitive behavioral therapy
the way you think is the problem
people are distributed not by things but the views they take

Nothing good or bad but thinking makes it so

happiness and misery depends on disposition not circumstance

once people believe something is true they act as if it were.
Believed earth was flat, acted like it was flat.

Distorted though patterns - beck
cognitive distortions, think in an irrational way. Are they logical, honest, rational?

1. All or none thinking - I am a success or I am a failure, black or white

2. over generalization - self-fulling prophecy, learned helplessness - martin segalman - rat in cage shocked it, it gives up due to reinforcement history.

3. jumping to conclusions
try to read someone's mind, assume the worst

4. magnification and minimization
magnify failures, minimize accomplishments

5. Emotional thinking -
my behavior is bad, therefore i'm a horrible person. Has to do with shame and guilt. Difference between what I did and who I am. Mistakes are normal.

5. Should statements -
must, have to, suppose to, got to, need to, should be, has to be, etc.

Set of irrational, illogical thought patterns.

Always - more realistic - sometimes, often, occasionally, usually

Never - more realistic - sometimes, seldom, rarely, usually not

Why do people do this> The more you do this the worse it is? Very black and white.

Need - want, choose, prefer, wish, would like....don't need to.

Have to - Don't have to, choose to.

Definitely - perhaps, maybe, might, probably

all - many, most, some, a lot

None - few, not many

Good - like, approve, it's effective, it works

Bad - don't like, want, approve, work

Deserve - want, desire, expect, prefer

Can't - won't, refuse to, don't want to, decided not to

Awful - nuisance, irritation, problem, inconvenience

Know - assume, wonder, think, guess

is/are - appears, seems to be, perhaps, could be

Terrible- unfortunate, displeasing, unpleasant
Model of emotional reactions
Ellis - ABC formula - rational emotive therapy RET

Starts with antecedant or the activating event - individual is blocked from desired goal.

Goes to belief system -
individuals interpretation of event is rational or irrational.

Go to C - consequence -

Ex. Person wants to ask someone out. They ask them and they say no.
Rational - displeased and disappointed or irrational and become hopeless and depressed.

Result - emotional consequence reinforces belief about the event
Rational - I'll ask someone else out.
Irrational - I suck and no one will date me ever.

Influence the belief system in the middle.

Gestalt - believe because it's about the perception
ACT formula
Emery andd Campbell

book - rapid relief from emotional distress - how to get over emotional problems without long therapy

A - Accept your current reality
I accept that right now I feel emotional pain in my life.

Must first admit what you have in order to change it, focus on what you have first. God grant me the ability to accept the things I cannot change and the wisdom to know the difference,, acknowledge, understand.

C - Choose to create your vision -
I choose to create the experiences I envision
People like to wallow in the reaction rather than focusing on your action

T - Take action to create it
I will take action to create what I want in life

Most people just wallow in their reaction, they feel happy, justified, like they can choose to be angry because someone did something to them.
Ex. Dean was jealous that he got promoted before her. Took paternity classes, dean told the dean that he didn't need the leave. The dean retracted the leave...He was angry and upset, she stabbed him in the back, he was pissed, was going to freak out, instead sat in his office and thought about what he was going to do.

Put your energy into your action, not the reaction, don't live in your reaction and be angry and mad. Acknowledge that you're mad then choose what to do about it, are you going to play victim or take action. Powerless in reaction, power lies in action. People love to whine, they're not prepared. Put energy in action.
The ok corral
I'm okay you're ok

People in life that have views -
Jerk view - I'm okay, you're not ok. We hate people.

You're not ok, i'm not ok - loser view
Why should I live, everything is a mess

Sulk - you're ok, i'm not ok
keeping up with the jones or smiths
They buy a mower, you buy a mower, one up each other
Because they drive this fancy car, etc. Compare yourself to someone else, they're superior

I am ok, you're ok - Winner
We're all ok. Healthiest.
Karpman Triangle
Persecutor, rescuer, victim

Games people play
musical chairs,

Victim - kick me, i'm stupid, poor me. Many people solicit negative feedback from people, collect brown stamps. Something is wrong with me, validates it, solicits it. Wake up and take responsibility to your life, what you're saying to yourself.

Ex. Johnny says to dad, i'm really stupid, dad says you're not stupid, he goes on for an hour about how he's stupid, father says you're not stupid stupid. Then he commits suicide by soliciting all this stuff.

Persecutor -
Put down
find fault
blame others
get even
love to put people down, I told you so, set things up, something is wrong with you = i'm ok, you're not ok

Rescuer -
Only trying to help
What would you do without me
Stay away from this!
Ex. Mom gets between dad and the children. Mom thinks she's doing the right thing. Go to mom because mom can butter dad up to say yes. Have to go to mom first to get stuff to happen, she's in control. Later prevents children from having a relationship. Should say that's between you two.
Wife does everything for husband, husband doesn't know how to do anything.

Something is wrong with you -
peter pan syndrome - men that don't want to grow up. Wendy - be the mother....

Presecutor - often dad
Kid - johnny - victim
Dad had bad day, yells at Johnny, mom comes in to rescue, he helped me with stuff, dad jumps on mom, you're always protecting him! He needs to take responsibility! Mom is now a victim. Johnny is now a rescuer to keep dad from yelling at mom. It's my fault, i'm sorry. Happens often.

cognitive therapy - recognize how you think influences the way you behave
Reality therapy
most important and effective therapy
Glasser - teach people how to assume responsibility - response and ability, ability to response through choice. Most kids don't have this. Not taught how to think. Total and complete responsability for their behaivor. Two part system.

Part 1 - Never ask why. Is a waste of time. Ask alcoholic why they drink, you'll get a million reasons to excuse their behavior...what do they plan to do about it? Some say, what are we going to do? No...what are YOU planning to do about your grades.
Start with the word what

1. What?
ask, don't tell -
If you tell it goes in one ear and out the other, ask makes them think.

set a goal
don't ask, "why?"

1. What -
what else?
- be specific, don't criticize, make a contract. Ask them questions like what a clean room is, what does hitting mean? Columbo is good at this.
Ex. Hide Easter eggs. I wonder if there's any eggs over here?]

Part 2 - What - consequences

What consequences are you willing to experience if you don't achieve your goal? it's not about punishment, consequence is about choice. Ask them to think about it. Made contract with themselves, you're a witness.

Ex. If I don't go to work, I don't get paid. Then we don't have electricity, or phone, or food.

part 3 - What's next
No excuses, no punishment, renegotiate
I guess you didn't want the bike, let's renegotiate for next week. Consequences occurred.
Development workbook pg 115

Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal

Piaget -
Assimilation and accommodation
Cognitive stages of development
Object permanence, Animism, Conservation

Erikson -
Psychosocial stages of development

Freud -
Psychosexual stages of development
Oedipal and electral complexes

Personalty and Assessment - 132

Freud -
Id, ego, superego
defense mechanisms

Sheldon's body types

I - E Personality Dimensioins -
Internal/external locus of control

Rogers model

Tests -
MMPI, Rorschach, TAT - projective and objective tests??

Infrequent behavior - 142
Medical model (organic)
Behavioral model (functional)
Neurotic vs Psycchotic
- Illusion vs Hallucination vs Delusion
Stages of Dying
Sexual Behaviors
DSM-IV Classification of disorders -
Anxiety, mood, domatoform, dissociate, Schizophrneic, Personality

Psychotherapy - 157
different therapy types

Client dominant vs