industrial revolution


Terms in this set (...)

what is the industrial revolution?
an agrarian revolution and industrialization caused a shift from an economy based on farming and handicrafts to an economy based on manufacturing by machines in factories
why did the industrial revolution begin in great britain? 5 factors
-an agrarian revolution beginning in the 1700s changed agricultural practices. Expansion of farmland, good weather, improve transportation, and new crops such as the potato increased food supply
-with increased food supply, population grew
-Britain had a plentiful supply of money (capital) to invest in new machines and factories
-Britain had plentiful natural resources (iron)
-a supply of markets gave britain manufacturers a ready outlet for their goods
how did great britain's increasing population affect the industrial revolution?
many thought that population growth led to economic growth because the more workers in the factory. enclosure laws forced farmers from countryside to look for work in factories. According to thomas malthus when there is increasing food supply, population tends to increase too fast for the food supply to keep up, lead to famine, disease and war. the rapid growth of cities led to pitiful living conditions. The more population the more
how did new inventions CHANGE the methods of production?
new inventions changed the methods of production because they made everything work fast and more efficiently therefore creating more products in less time for less money. For example the invention of the steam engine made it so factories did not need to be placed near rivers anymore and made it so Britain cotton cloth production increased dramatically. Since they didn't need to pay workers anymore they were able to create these products for less while making more.
why is coal the backbone to the industrial revolution?
Coal is the backbone to the industrial revolution because from using coal as fuel they were able to accomplish any things like creating the steam engine which made work faster and cheaper and new processes using coal aided the transformation of another industry- the iron industry. Coal was able to improve iron drastically. Great Britain produce more iron then the rest of the combined world produced. This high-quality iron was used to build new machines, especially trains! Coal also seemed then to be unlimited in quantity.
why was the steam engine the most important technological innovation?
The steam engine was the most important technological innovation because the steam engine was improved so that it was able to drive machinery and could spin and weave cotton. Because steam engine was powered by coal factories didn't have to be next to a river anymore but could be anywhere. This also caused cotton production to increase drastically.
what were human costs of the industrial revolution?
The working conditions were horrible. Working was dangerous especially in coal mines where there could be cave ins, explosions and gas fumes. The conditions were extremely unhealthy. Constant dampness in mines led to deformed bodies and ruined lungs. Space was very cramped. Many man were angry because of horrible working conditions also more women hired then men because they could be payed less which angered men even more. Anger led to alcohol and high crime rate. Suicide rates increased as well. Families were torn apart because of anger. They worked long endless hours.
how were women and children treated in the new industrial society?
Women were hired a lot because people left they didn't need to pay them as much as men and children were hired to work in coal mines because they were small an able to fit in small spaces. Also children were payed lower wages as well.
what is capital? what are the characteristics of a capitalist society?
Capital as money. If you were a capitalist you were a wealthy factory owner of some sort. Characteristics of capitalist society includes:
-supply and demand ( supply low demand high =high price etc.)
-private owner of business
-no government control
-profit motive
-free market
-free competition
what does the term "laissez-faire" mean? Who is Adam smith?
Literally means "let people do what they want" the concept that the state should impose government regulations but should leave the economy alone. Smith believed in laissez-faire. Adam smith was a scottish philosopher and economist and was the first to state the laissez faire which is the idea that government shouldn't have to control over business.
why did Marx say the proletariat would stage a "working class revolution" against the bourgeoisie?
he said this because he thought the capitalist system would disappear. He thought that shopkeepers and small business would be ruined by competition with powerful capitalist. From that they would be forced to become workers in factories therefore expanding the amount of proletariats. Eventually there would only be a few rich people and a lot of proletariats. Since the rich people treat the workers horribly and unjustly he predicted a great upheaval in society would occur and the workers would seize control of the government.
how did workers bring about change in their working and living conditions?
They brought about change in their living and working conditions by forming unions and rebelled.
capital is a broad topic of wealth to help improve their business. Wealthy people were known as capitalist. Capitalist got their money from owning a factories and paying low wages to the worker and selling the products made. Capitalist were part of the bourgeoisie class. Capital could be classified as tools, property, buildings etc.
a person interested in finding new business opportunities. They were also interested in new ways to make profits. Entrepreneur were a lot like capitalist in that their motive was to make a profit. These people are very willing to invest in business.
puddling process
One of great Britain natural resources was its unlimited supply of coal was eventually led into the iron industry. Iron before coal wasn't very high quality but then Henry Cort developed a process called puddling. in this process, coke, which was derived from coal, was used to burn away impurities in crude iron called pig iron. This produced a iron of high quality.
James Watt
James Watt was a famous entrepreneur who improved the steam engine. He made changes that enabled the engine to drive machinery. It could spin and weave cotton now as well. This allowed factories to be build anywhere, not just next to rivers
coal and iron
Coal was the backbone to the industrial revolution. Without it the industrial revolution would have never been the same. Coal was a unlimited resource that great Britain obtained and used to fuel the steam engine, trains, boats and tractors. Through coal the iron industry made. Coke was taken from coal and used to burn away impurities in crude iron. This made they iron of much high quality. This iron was used to build new machines and especially trains. symbiotic relationship.
railroads developed for more efficient ways of moving goods and resources. the success of stockton & darlington, the first true railroad made it so liverpool (a thriving port) and manchester ( a rich cotton manufacturing town) were linked. the most suitable locomotive was the rocket. railroad caused a ripple affect in the economy as well because it created more jobs, less expensive transportation which led to lower good prices thus creating larger markets.
The Rocket
In 1829, the investors of stockton and darlington sponsored a competition to find the most suitable locomotive to connect liverpool and mach ester. They chose the rocket. It sound along 16 miles per hour while pulling a 40 ton train. From the rocket they were able to build of and improve locomotives to a even high standard.
child labor
Children were used in the mines because they were small and able to crawl into small spaces. People hired them because the didn't have to pay them high wages. They worked in horrible unhealthy conditions for long periods of time. It was also very dangerous because of cave ins, explosion and gas fumes
cottage system
the way people use to make products before factories. Cottage system was done by hand. also done at home. Very slow and whole family did it together. Farming is your main job. Producing items for own self.
factory system
This way of living produced products much faster. Machines were used sometimes instead of people. A lot of workers in one factory making many products but not for self for consumer. All the money goes to the capitalist leaving very little for workers. Not centered around farming at all.
Marx separated people into two groups haves and have nots. Have nots on the proletariat where as haves are the bourgeoisie. Marx also felt they were people exploited but the bourgeoisie and predicted a rebellion where the proletariats would take over. Proletariats were the workers.
Marx separated people into two groups haves and have nots. The haves were the bourgeoisie. Marx felt they held the economic power. They were people who owned the factories, mines and banks. Capitalist were a big part of the bourgeoisie class.
Capitalism is a way of living that followed the laissez faire which stated that government should have no control over business. Capitalism also consisted of free competition, free open market, private owner of business an a supply and demand thought. Capitalism was all about profit motive and making money. It was very unequal because the rich people (capitalists) got all the money while the poorer people stayed at the bottom. The downside was that they used cheaper material which was poorer quality so that it cost less to reduce the product, low wages for worker as well. Your could lie to consumer to get more customers and if it cost too much they will remove safety mechanisms.
Marx created communism because he let capitalism was outdated and must be radically changed. Communism can be separated into 3 stages. The first in that the worker (proletariat ) would rebel and take over. Then then military leaders who have experience in organization would teach the workers how to run the factories. This stage was temporary until workers understood how to run a factory. The stage three which was known as communist paradise would occur which included total equality in work, money, power and eduction. There would be no classes, no role for government and no private property owners.
how were goods produced before the industrial revolution? why was there a CHANGE from working in the home to working outside the home?
Before the Industrial Revolution, goods were handmade and produced in the rural cottages of the individuals making the product. Eventually, the cottage industry became inefficient and new machines were invented to speed processes up. These machines could only be operated in factories.
what are the benefits of the factory system? How did the change to the factory system affect workers?
The factory system created a whole new labor system and increased the efficiency of production. Workers were used to working for hectic periods followed by periods of inactivity. However, the factory owners wanted the factory workers to work without stopping, which was a significant adjustment.
in what ways did cotton begin the industrial revolution?
Cotton began the Industrial Revolution because it was the first product to be transferred from the cottage industry to the factory industry. Production of cotton was one of the first processes that was made significantly more efficient by new energy sources, such as the water wheel and steam engine. These inventions were carried to other processes after their success with cotton production.
the goal of socialism was equal well being and equal chance at success. There was an open market however government has control over businesses. Government provides social services such as Healthcare, therapy and education. When Marx created communism he described it as a form of complete socialism.
utopian societies
this was an ideal society. They believed this could be done if communities where owned by the people who lived and worked there. Charles Fourier had an idea to set up a society where people would enjoy their work and have pleasant living conditions. All members would do the job best suited for them and would share in everything that was produced. no utopian society ever really worked out.