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Which virus attacks white blood cells?


Prokaryotes are helpful to humans because they...

-help plants utilize atmospheric nitrogen.
-can clean up toxic waste
-are used to make various foods.
-sythesize vitamins within our intestinal tracts.

The concept of evolution is based upon

survival and reproductive success of organisms with favorable variations

Measles is caused by


Tetanus is caused by ______ bacteria that are growing in deep puncture wounds


Which is the first explanation of a problem in thinking of scientist?


The oldest fossil organisms presently know have been dated at approximately how many years old?

3.5 billion

Bacteria cause which diseases?

-strep throat

A virus basically consists of

RNA or DNA and a protein coat

Evolution is described as change from pre-existing life forms to modern-day organisms. What actually changed?

ability of organisms to cope with external stimuli


A carefully formulated scientific explanation that is based on a large accumulation of observations and is in accord with scientific principles

smallest sized organisms


Prokaryotic cell walls function

to prevent the cell from bursting in a hypotonic (watery) environment

What may cause the disease known as lockjaw?

Clostridium tetani

The earliest (oldest) fossils resemble modern


what is a normal inhabitant of a cow's digestive tract that can cause harm to people when it contaminates ground beef

Escherichia coli

binary fission

the method by which bacteria reproduce

The main difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph is

how they obtain energy

Antibiotics can only be effective against a



improperly folded proteins

When a virus takes over the machinery of a cell, it forces the cell to manufacture

more viral particles

Unlike aerobic prokaryotes, anaerobic prokaryotes can obtain energy when _____ is not available.



The slime layer around the bacterial cell


A bacterial colony that forms a grape-like cluster of round cells

Endospores are produced by

bacilli (ROD)

Strep throat is caused by Streptococcus, at type of


science is based on


Intestinal gas is evidence of active _____ in one's digestive tract.



Viruses that attack prokaryotes

which environments would you normally find prokaryotes?

-human skin
-a spoonfull of soil
-an animal's intestinal tact
-a single drop of saltwater

What do the sticky layers of protective slime produced by some bacteria enable them to do?

stick together and form biofilms

Nearly all viral multiplication cycles require _____ steps.


Which represents the highest degree of certainty?


Botulism can cause

paralysis, distruped breathing, and death.

It appears that the pathogen responsible for "mad cow disease" also in human causes

vCruetzfeldt-Jakob disease

Lyme disease is cause by _____ that are transmitted to humans by ticks.


When nutrients are scarce or stress occurs some bacteria

form endospores

When a disease spreads fast across countries at the same time this is called a _______?


In a word, evolution means _____.


Herpes is caused by


For which of the following diseases or conditions should antibiotics be used?

lyme disease

Endospores as old as _____ years old have been revived into living bacteria.


Most scientists do not consider viruses to be "alive" because

their metabolic machinery is borrowed from the host cell.

When bacteria divide by fission each daughter cell inherits

one chromosome

The rhyme or verse "Ring around the rosey..." is related to what epdidemic?

bubonic plague


any infectious agent that can invade a host organism and multiply on or in it.

Multicellularity allows organisms to

be big

Which is a swamp gas, intestinal gas, and explosive gas in a coal mine (killed miners recently)?


In ancient Rome which of the following words meant " poisonous ", "venemous" or "virulant?"


Flagella in bacteria

are specialized for movement through rotory spin.

Diverse viruses infect organisms of

all kingdoms

Mad cow disease, also called variant Creutzfelt-Jakob disease, is caused by


Which of the following is characteristic of HIV?

RNA enclosed in a protein coat

Bacteriophages are


Contagious diseases are spread by

-indirect contact
-direct contact

The smallest organizational unit having a capacity to survive and reproduce on its own its

a cell

Extreme halophiles

require high salt concentrations

When not dividing, bacteria have ____ chromosome(s) and may have extra circles of_____ called plasmids.


Pairs of rod-shaped bacteria are called


Viroids differ from viruses in that the former lack


tightly folded strands or circles of RNA and poses no protein coat. These bits of "naked" RNA cause many diseases in plants.


viruses include some forms that are able to attack bacteria.


The validity of scientific discoveries cannot be based on


Which of the following allow the bacteria to join together to transfer genes?


In bacteria, DNA is found

as a circular thread

A virus cannot replicate without pirating ______ from a specific host cell.

metabolic machinery

Rod shaped bacteria are called



is not caused by bacteria


can serve as a source of antibiotics

The oldest living forms of life on Earth are the


Infective proteins are known as


Viruses have a _____ and a ____.

DNA or RNA; protein coat

Which of the following options correctly pairs a structure with its function in prokaryote cells?

pili=help prokaryotes stick to each other and to surfaces

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