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73 terms

BIO 1421-Test #!

STUDY
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Which virus attacks white blood cells?
HIV
Prokaryotes are helpful to humans because they...
-help plants utilize atmospheric nitrogen.
-can clean up toxic waste
-are used to make various foods.
-sythesize vitamins within our intestinal tracts.
The concept of evolution is based upon
survival and reproductive success of organisms with favorable variations
Measles is caused by
viruses
Tetanus is caused by ______ bacteria that are growing in deep puncture wounds
anaerobic
Which is the first explanation of a problem in thinking of scientist?
hypothesis
The oldest fossil organisms presently know have been dated at approximately how many years old?
3.5 billion
Bacteria cause which diseases?
-gonorrhea
-strep throat
-pneumonia
-syphilis
A virus basically consists of
RNA or DNA and a protein coat
Evolution is described as change from pre-existing life forms to modern-day organisms. What actually changed?
ability of organisms to cope with external stimuli
Theory
A carefully formulated scientific explanation that is based on a large accumulation of observations and is in accord with scientific principles
smallest sized organisms
bacteria
Prokaryotic cell walls function
to prevent the cell from bursting in a hypotonic (watery) environment
What may cause the disease known as lockjaw?
Clostridium tetani
The earliest (oldest) fossils resemble modern
prokaryotes
what is a normal inhabitant of a cow's digestive tract that can cause harm to people when it contaminates ground beef
Escherichia coli
binary fission
the method by which bacteria reproduce
The main difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph is
how they obtain energy
Antibiotics can only be effective against a
bacterium
Prions
improperly folded proteins
When a virus takes over the machinery of a cell, it forces the cell to manufacture
more viral particles
Unlike aerobic prokaryotes, anaerobic prokaryotes can obtain energy when _____ is not available.
oxygen
capsule
The slime layer around the bacterial cell
staphylococcus
A bacterial colony that forms a grape-like cluster of round cells
Endospores are produced by
bacilli (ROD)
Strep throat is caused by Streptococcus, at type of
bacteria
science is based on
evidence
Intestinal gas is evidence of active _____ in one's digestive tract.
methanogens
bacteriophages
Viruses that attack prokaryotes
which environments would you normally find prokaryotes?
-human skin
-a spoonfull of soil
-an animal's intestinal tact
-a single drop of saltwater
What do the sticky layers of protective slime produced by some bacteria enable them to do?
stick together and form biofilms
Nearly all viral multiplication cycles require _____ steps.
five
Which represents the highest degree of certainty?
theory
Botulism can cause
paralysis, distruped breathing, and death.
It appears that the pathogen responsible for "mad cow disease" also in human causes
vCruetzfeldt-Jakob disease
Lyme disease is cause by _____ that are transmitted to humans by ticks.
spirillia
When nutrients are scarce or stress occurs some bacteria
form endospores
When a disease spreads fast across countries at the same time this is called a _______?
pandemic
In a word, evolution means _____.
change
Herpes is caused by
viruses
For which of the following diseases or conditions should antibiotics be used?
lyme disease
Endospores as old as _____ years old have been revived into living bacteria.
250,000,000
Most scientists do not consider viruses to be "alive" because
their metabolic machinery is borrowed from the host cell.
When bacteria divide by fission each daughter cell inherits
one chromosome
The rhyme or verse "Ring around the rosey..." is related to what epdidemic?
bubonic plague
Pathogens
any infectious agent that can invade a host organism and multiply on or in it.
Multicellularity allows organisms to
be big
Which is a swamp gas, intestinal gas, and explosive gas in a coal mine (killed miners recently)?
methane
In ancient Rome which of the following words meant " poisonous ", "venemous" or "virulant?"
virus
Flagella in bacteria
are specialized for movement through rotory spin.
Diverse viruses infect organisms of
all kingdoms
Mad cow disease, also called variant Creutzfelt-Jakob disease, is caused by
prion
Which of the following is characteristic of HIV?
RNA enclosed in a protein coat
Bacteriophages are
viruses
Contagious diseases are spread by
-indirect contact
-inhalation
-vectors
-direct contact
The smallest organizational unit having a capacity to survive and reproduce on its own its
a cell
Extreme halophiles
require high salt concentrations
When not dividing, bacteria have ____ chromosome(s) and may have extra circles of_____ called plasmids.
one;DNA
Pairs of rod-shaped bacteria are called
diplobacilli
Viroids differ from viruses in that the former lack
protein
tightly folded strands or circles of RNA and poses no protein coat. These bits of "naked" RNA cause many diseases in plants.
viroids
viruses include some forms that are able to attack bacteria.
true
The validity of scientific discoveries cannot be based on
-morality
-economics
-philosophy
-aesthetics
Which of the following allow the bacteria to join together to transfer genes?
pili
In bacteria, DNA is found
as a circular thread
A virus cannot replicate without pirating ______ from a specific host cell.
metabolic machinery
Rod shaped bacteria are called
bacilli
smallpox
is not caused by bacteria
fungi
can serve as a source of antibiotics
The oldest living forms of life on Earth are the
archae
Infective proteins are known as
prions
Viruses have a _____ and a ____.
DNA or RNA; protein coat
Which of the following options correctly pairs a structure with its function in prokaryote cells?
pili=help prokaryotes stick to each other and to surfaces