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Ch. 7 sec. 1 What are bacteria
Terms in this set (20)
Who was the first person to view bacteria and how did he view them?
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek,used his simple microscope, he viewed scraping from his teeth, he did not know it, but the tiny swimming "beasties" were bacteria.
Where do bacteria live?
List and describe the 3 basic shapes of bacteria.
cocci - sphere shaped
bacilli - rod shaped
spirilla - spiral shaped
List/describe 7 characteristic of the structure of bacteria.
1.) smaller than plant or animal cells
2.) one-celled organisms either alone or in chains or groups
3.) cytoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane and a cell wall
4.) prokaryotic because they contain no membrane bound structures (organelles)
5.) most have one circular chromosome found in the cytoplasm
6.) many have a smaller circular piece of DNA called a plasmid
7.) ribosomes are also found in the cytoplasma
5.List/describe 4 special features of bacteria.
1.) some have a thick gelatin like capsule around the cell wall for protection
2.) hair-like projections on the surface that help the bacterium stick to things
3.) some have a slime layer that helps it to stick to other things and reduces water loss
4.) some have a flagella to help it move around in moisture
How do bacteria usually reproduce?
By fission of asexual reproduction
some bacteria exchange genetic code similar to sexual reproduction. Before dividing this type of bacteria line up beside one another and exchange DNA through tubes that join them.
Describe the two ways bacteria obtain their food.
1.) some make their own
2.) some get it from their environment - most are consumers
an organism that uses oxygen when breaking down food (we are this type and most bacteria)
an organism that has adapted to live without oxygen
What are the two kingdoms of bacteria?
eubacteria and archaebacteria
List 6 ways eubacteria are classified by scientists.
1.) cell shape and structure
2.) how they obtain food
3.) type of food they consume
4.) wastes they produce
5.) cell movement
6.) whether they are aerobic or anaerobic
this eubacteria make their own food using CO2, water and energy from sunlight. They produce oxygen as waste. They contain chlorophyll and another pigment that is blue. Common name of blue-green bacteri2a.
a group in this case of bacterium that live together
Describe a problem cyanobacteria can cause
It can cause a problem for aquatic life by creating that green
smelly layer in ponds. This is the bloom of the cyanobacteria. When the available resources die it dies. Other aerobic bacteria feed off of the dead cyanobacteria and use up all of the oxygen in the water. As aresult all of the fish and other organisms die too.
What are the two groupings consumer eubacteria are grouped in and what does it determine in terms of medicine.
1.) gram-positive cells - stains purple when looked at under a microscope, because they have thicker walls. Antibiotics less effective.
2.) gram-negative - stains pink because they have thinner walls. Antibiotics more effective.
a type of bacteria does not have cell walls and can change shape. This causes pneumonia in humans.
bacteria that are found in extreme conditions. They are grouped by location and how they get energy.
List and describe the 3 groups of archaebacteria.
1.) salt - live in salty environments such as the Great Salt Lake, the Dead Sea. More extreme salt then the oceans/seas.
3.) hot - live in deep ocean vents or hot springs
Describe methane producing archaebacteria
They are anaerobic that live in muddy waters and intestines of cattle and even you. They break down waste and release methane gas. Used in sewage plants to break down waste.
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