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47 terms

Zoology Ch 2 Test

First half of the chapter
STUDY
PLAY
Describe 5 levels of organization found in organisms.
__Unicellular: single-celled organisms____

Cellular: colonial (some protists) or multicellular animals with no tissues___

__Tissue: have tissues, which are similar cells grouped together for a common function__

__Organ: have organs (of two or more tissues)with a specific function_

__Organ system: have organs that work together for a common function
Name 4 major types of tissues
epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
Describe epithelial tissue
covers an internal or external surface
Describe connective tissue:
for binding and support. Cells are (usually) surrounded by a matrix
Name 5 different types of connective tissues
loose, dense, blood, bone, cartilage_
The function of muscular tissue is
contraction_
The function of nervous tissue is
receiving stimuli; sending impulses_
Name and describe three body plans found in animals related to their symmetry:
_Spherical: Like a ball___

__Radial: round in plane (like a wheel)

__Bilateral: having a head, tail end, left and right
Describe 3 different types of body plans found in the bilaterally symmetrical animals as to body
cavities:
Acoelomates: no cavity surrounding the gut_____

Pseudocoelomates: a body cavity surrounds the gut,but lacks a peritoneum of
mesodermal origin (body cavity is "between" endoderm and mesoderm) ____

Eucoelomates: have a "true" body cavity lined with mesodermal peritoneum__
10. Name 2 types of coelom formation in the eucoelomates, and describe the differences in these
groups.
Schizocoelous : the coelom develops as the early mesoderm splits__

Enterocoelous: the coelom develops from outpocketings of the archenteron___
1. Name the taxa of our hierarchical system of classification in order, from most inclusive to least
inclusive.
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species___
Define taxonomy:
he naming and classification of organisms__
What is a cladogram?
A diagram that shows the pattern of sharing of evolutionarily derived characters among species or higher taxa___
Define cladistics
System of taxonomy that utilizes cladograms
In cladistics, all taxa are
monophyletic
Animal-like protists are called
protozoa
Describe the protozoan body plan:
most: unicellular; some colonial; some with multicellular stages
Protozoans have highly specialized __organelles____, but they do not have __tissues, organs

or germ layers. __ (related to level of organization).
Organelles

Tissues, organs or germ layers
Protozoans do /do not (circle one) have a cell wall.
DO NOT
What do protozoans have in common as to motility?
most are motile
How do most protozoans obtain their nutrition?
heterotrophs by ingestion
Some are also _autotrophic___ or _saprozoic___.
autotrophic or saprozoic
How do all protozoans reproduce?
asexually by mitosis
There is sexual reproduction in no / some / all protozoans.
SOME
Lifestyles present in the protozoa are
_free-living, mutualism, commensalisms,

parasitism___
Give characteristics you learned for each of the following protozoa:
...
Giardia
ntestinal parasite; causes diarrhea. Has flagella.___
Trichonympha
Termite symbiont with flagella.
Volvox
Photosynthetic, with chloroplasts. Sphere-shaped colony._
Chlamydomonas
Photosynthetic, with chloroplasts. Has flagella.__
Euglena
Photosynthetic autotroph in the light, with chloroplasts. Heterotroph in the dark. Has flagella._
Trypanosoma
Causes African Sleeping Sickness, carried by the Tse Tse fly. Has flagellum___
Plasmodium
An endoparasite that causes malaria, carried by mosquitoes. Not motile, except for the male gamete. Apical complex helps to penetrate host cell
Paramecium
Moves with cilia. Is multinucleate. Reproduces asexually by binary fission.

Conjugation allows fro exchange of genetic info.
Dinoflagellates
Have 2 perpindicular flagella. Half are photosynthetic. Include red tide-causing organism and coral symbionts._
Amoeba
Moves and gets food with pseudopodia
Foraminiferans
Have calcium carbonate shells. Move with pseudopodia.
Actinopodans
Have axopodia- slender pseudopodia supported by microtubules._
Protozoa in the phylum _Apicomplexa__ are all endoparasites. An example is

_Plasmodium_____, which causes malaria.
Protozoa in the phylum _Apicomplexa__ are all endoparasites. An example is

_Plasmodium_____, which causes malaria.
Sexual reproduction of Plasmodium takes place in the
mosquito
Protozoa that bear cilia are called

An example is:
Ciliates__

EXAMPLE:
_Paramecium__
In Paramecium, genetic material is exchanged in the process called
_Conjugation__
Paramecium reproduces asexually by a process called
binary fission__
Protozoa in the phylum __Dinoflagellata___ have two perpendicular flagella.

Examples: __Red tide organisms; coral symbionts__
Protozoa in the phylum __Dinoflagellata___ have two perpendicular flagella.

Examples: __Red tide organisms; coral symbionts__
An informal name for protozoa that move and eat with pseudopodia is
__Amoeba__
Amebas with calcium carbonate shells are called
Foraminifera_
Amebas with axopodia are
Actinopodans_