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Biology class

endocrine system

regulation (maintain homeostasis)
-works by using chemicals formed by special cells to regulate processes throughout the body.
-responses are slower, but last longer.

the endocrine system works very closely with...

the circulatory system


the chemicals that are involved in regulation in the the endocrine system.
-released directly into the bloodstream

target cell

hormones travel in the blood until they reach this. which contains compatible receptors on its surface

receptor molecules

are chemically specific , they can only bind to hormones meant for that receptor (same shape, lock and key)


after a hormone binds to a receptor molecule, this occurs. can occur in the target cell

responses of the endocrine system regulate:

growth, blood pressure, immune responses, the rate of metabolism, muscle contraction, responses to stress, digestion, the development and function of the reproductive system


what hormones are produced in and released from

exocrine glands

release secretions through tubes or ducts.
-examples: sweat from glands, digestive enzymes from pancreas

endocrine glands

release secretions directly into the bloodstream
-examples: hormones


a gland that controls secretions of other glands such as the pituitary


regulates the function of other glands


gland that regulates metabolism


gland which regulates blood calcium levels


controls T-cell production


gland which regulates responses to stress


regulates secondary sex characteristics of females and egg production


regulates secondary sex characteristics of males and sperm production


what the endocrine system uses to maintain homeostasis
uses this for body temp. regulation, regulation of water & blood sugar regulation
- cause-effect mechanism

cause-effect mechanism

a change detected in the body causes an action in the appropriate area, which will return the body to its original condition
-example "A" causes a change in "B" which than causes a change back in "A"


the body doesn't produce enough insulin (type 1) or the body doesn't respond to the insulin (type 2) and blood glucose remains high


the body doesn't produce enough glucagon and the blood glucose remains low


extremely small stature due to a deficiency of human growth

acromegaly (giantism)

extremely large stature due to a surplus of human growth hormone

nervous system

it function is to maintain homeostasis by controlling and coordinating functions throughout the body and responding to the internal and external stimuli


a detectable change in the internal or external environment


are cells of the nervous system
-transmit electrical impulses throughout the body

cell body

contains the nucleus and most of the cytoplasm of the cell. the site of metabolic activity


branched extensions off of the cell body which carry impulses from other neurons to the cell body


long fiber that carries the impulses away from the cell body to other neurons
-covered in a myelin sheet for insulation


bundles of neurons branching from the central nervous system to all parts of the body
-long axons of neurons bundle together


a type of neuron , carries impulses from the sense organs to the central nervous system


a type of neuron, carries impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands


a type of neuron, located in the central nervous system, carries impulses between sensory and motor neurons

nerve impulses are formed when...

there is a change in change of the cell membrane of a neuron


caused by a flow of ions (potassium and sodium)

once an impulse occurs...

neurons stimulate other neurons in with they are connected


the minimum level needed to activate s neuron


at what impulses travel from neuron to neuron is

axon terminal

at the end of each neuron an impulse reaches this


what impulses travel across the synapse as


chemicals used by neurons to transmit impulses across a synapse to other neurons

the nervous system is divided into these to major divisions...

central nervous system, peripheral nervous system

central nervous system

control center of the body which processes, analyses and relays info.

peripheral nervous system

includes the nerves which branch from the CNS

brain and spinal cord

-protected by 3 layers of connective tissue called meninges.
-space between the protective layers contains cerebra spinal fluid (CSF):
fluid acts as an absorber. allows exchange of nutrients and waste products between the blood and nervous tissue.


separated into 3 parts: cerebrum, cerebellum, brain steam.
-each part contains a pacific function of the body


controls voluntary or conscious activities of the body including intelligence and learning.


brain divided into this.
-left controls the right side of the body, while right controls the left side of the body.


hemispheres is divided into this.
-frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal


receives messages from the sensory organs and relays the info to the cerebrum which causes a response.


recognizes hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger and the body temp.


controls coordination and balance
-located at the bottom back of the skull

brain stem

connects the brain and spinal cord.
- controls involuntary body functions including blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and swallowing
-contains the pons and the medulla oblongata

spinal cord

main communication link between the brain and the rest of the body
-reflexes are produced directly here


the bones that protect the spinal cord


a quick automatic response to a stimulus
-allows for an immediate response to danger

peripheral nervous system

all nerves extending off of the brain and spinal cord
-sensory and motor function

sensory function

transmits impulses from the sense organs to the central nervous system

motor function

transmits impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles or glands.
- two divisions: somatic and automatic


- controls activities that are under conscious control
-movement of skeletal muscles


- controls activities not under conscious control
-heartbeat, movement of smooth muscles in organs and blood vessels.
-further divided: sympathetic and parasympathetic

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