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14 terms

Unit 5 - Chapter 23

STUDY
PLAY
Proto industrialization
preliminary shift away from an agricultural economy; workers become full or parttime producers who worked at home in a capitalist system in which materials, work, orders, and sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to the Industrial Revolution.
Congress of Vienna
met in 1815 after the defeat of France to restore the European balance of power.
liberalism
political ideology that flourished in 19th-century western Europe; stressed limited state interference in private life, representation of the people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
radicals
followers of a 19th-century western European political emphasis: advocated broader voting rights than liberals; urged reforms favoring the lower classes.
socialism
political ideology in 19th-century Europe; attacked private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of the means of production and an end to the capitalistic exploitation of the working class.
factory system
intensification of all of the processes of production at a single site during the Industrial Revolution; involved greater organization of labor and increased discipline.
Luddites
workers in Britain who responded to the replacement of their labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution by attempting to destroy machines; named after the fictional worker Ned Ludd.
Chartist Movement
unsuccessful attempt by British artisans and workers to gain the vote during the 1840s.
Transformismo
political system in Italy that allied conservative and liberals in support of the status quo.
Social question
issues relating to workers and women, in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.
Karl Marx
German socialist who saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached the inevitability of social revolution and the creation of a proletarian dictatorship.
revisionism
socialist thought that disagreed with Marx's formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through existing political institutions.
Romanticism
19th western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
American exceptionalism
historical argument that the development of the United States was largely individualistic and that contact with Europe was incidental to American formation.