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Proto industrialization

preliminary shift away from an agricultural economy; workers become full or parttime producers who worked at home in a capitalist system in which materials, work, orders, and sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to the Industrial Revolution.

Congress of Vienna

met in 1815 after the defeat of France to restore the European balance of power.


political ideology that flourished in 19th-century western Europe; stressed limited state interference in private life, representation of the people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.


followers of a 19th-century western European political emphasis: advocated broader voting rights than liberals; urged reforms favoring the lower classes.


political ideology in 19th-century Europe; attacked private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of the means of production and an end to the capitalistic exploitation of the working class.

factory system

intensification of all of the processes of production at a single site during the Industrial Revolution; involved greater organization of labor and increased discipline.


workers in Britain who responded to the replacement of their labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution by attempting to destroy machines; named after the fictional worker Ned Ludd.

Chartist Movement

unsuccessful attempt by British artisans and workers to gain the vote during the 1840s.


political system in Italy that allied conservative and liberals in support of the status quo.

Social question

issues relating to workers and women, in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.

Karl Marx

German socialist who saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached the inevitability of social revolution and the creation of a proletarian dictatorship.


socialist thought that disagreed with Marx's formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through existing political institutions.


19th western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.

American exceptionalism

historical argument that the development of the United States was largely individualistic and that contact with Europe was incidental to American formation.

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