20 terms

Virus unit: vocabulary, lytic and lysogenic cycles

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Virus
A small, non-living particle that invades and reproduces in a host cell. Considered to be non-living because they can't eat, grow, break down food, or use oxygen. There are three main body parts for a virus: 1. outer protein coat: made of proteins that could only attach to some of the cell's surface. 2. inner core: divides the protein and the DNA (genetic material). 3. DNA (genetic material)
Antiviral Medication
stops the virus from reproducing,
antibiotics
similar to the antivirchemicals that inhibit the growth of or kill other microorganisms
Toxin
a poison that kills the viruses.
Vaccine
a substance that produces chemicals that destroy pathogens.
Parasite
an organism that lives on or in a host and causes harm to the host.
Bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria also refered to as "bacteria eater" shaped like a spacecraft.
Pathogen
any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
Host
an organism that nourishes and supports a parasite by giving it energy. It does not benefit and is often harmed by the association
infectious disease
A disease that is caused by a pathogen and that can be spread.
Nanometer
one billionth of a meter
Lytic cycle
(summarized) a virus enters a cell, reproduces itself, and then break open the cell.
Step 1 of the Lytic cycle
A lytic bacteriophage virus attaches to a bacterial cell.
Step 2 of the Lytic cycle
The virus injects the nucleic acid into the cell. The acid uses the cell's ribosomes to make virus proteins. The proteins break up the cell's DNA.
Step 3 of the Lytic cycle
The virus capsid and tail detach from the cell and disintegrate. Inside the cell, the viral nucleic acid takes over and directs the cell to make new virus proteins and nucleic acid.
Step 4 of the Lytic cycle
The virus proteins and nucleic acid assemble into new viruses.
Step 5 of the Lytic cycle
Special (new) proteins cause the host bacterial cell to lyse (burst) destroying the cell in the process. The new viruses are free to infect other cells.
Lysogenic cycle
A viral reproductive cycle in which the viral DNA is added to the host cell's DNA and is copied along with the host cell's DNA. Infection is not occured right away; new viruses are not made right away.
"Hidden" Latent virus
hides inside the host cell & can be dorment for months or years before it begins to reprodce
active virus
viruses that enter cells and immediately begin to multiply- the cell dies quickly