4 Written questions
4 Multiple choice questions
- a philosophy based on the ideas of Auguste Compte; stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
- belief in the United States that it was destined to rule from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
- coffee estates that spread into the Brazilian interior between 1840 and 1860; caused intensification of slavery.
- United States declaration of 1823 that any attempt by a European country to colonize the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act.guano: bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; a major Peruvian export between 1850 and 1880.
4 True/False questions
centralists → Latin American politicians who favored regional governments rather than centralized administrations; often supported by liberal politicians.
La Reforma → mounted rural workers in the Rio de la Plata region.
gauchos → mounted rural workers in the Rio de la Plata region.
caudillos → leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government.