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leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government.


Latin American politicians who favored strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by conservative politicians.


Latin American politicians who favored regional governments rather than centralized administrations; often supported by liberal politicians.

Monroe Doctrine

United States declaration of 1823 that any attempt by a European country to colonize the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act.guano: bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; a major Peruvian export between 1850 and 1880.


a philosophy based on the ideas of Auguste Compte; stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.

Manifest Destiny

belief in the United States that it was destined to rule from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

La Reforma

name of Juárez's liberal revolution.


mounted rural workers in the Rio de la Plata region.


coffee estates that spread into the Brazilian interior between 1840 and 1860; caused intensification of slavery.

modernization theory

the belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned or transformed.

dependency theory

the belief that development and underdevelopment were not stages but were part of the same process; that development and growth of areas like western Europe were achieved at the expense of underdevelopment of dependent regions like Latin America.


advisors to Díaz's government who were influenced strongly by Positivist ideas.

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