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a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell

Bacteriophages or phages

Viruses that infect bacteria widely used as research tools in molecular genetics

Double helix

the presence of two strands

Semiconservative model

Watson and Crick'd model predicts that when a double helix replcates, each of the two daughter molecules will have one old strand, derived from the parent molecule and one newly made strand

Orgins of replication

where the replication of DNA begins

Replication fork

A Y- shaped region where the new strands of DNA are elongating

DNA polymerases

Elongation of new DNA at a replication frok is catalyzed by enzymes

DNA ligase

joins the sugar phosphate backbone s of the Okazaki fragments to create a singe DNA strand


the start of a new chain, is not DNA but a short streach of RNA


an enzyme joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer


an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication fork, separating the two old strands


DNA cutting enzyme


DNA at the tips of chromosomes


An enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres. The enzyme includes a molecule of RNA that serves as a template for new telomere segments.

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