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Western-style reforms within the Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876; included a European-influenced constitution in 1876.
members of the Ottoman Society for Union and Progress: intellectuals and political agitators seeking the return of the 1876 constitution; gained power through a coup in 1908.Mamluks: rulers of Egypt under the Ottomans; defeated by Napoleon in 1798; revealed the vulnerability of the Muslim world.
rulers of Egypt under the Ottomans; defeated by Napoleon in 1798; revealed the vulnerability of the Muslim world.
wealthy group of merchants under the Qing; specialized in the import-export trade on China's south coast
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