Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; desired radical change in the Russian political and economic system; wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from the West.
political groups that thought the abolition of formal government as a first step to creating a better society; became important in Russia and was the modern world's first large terrorist movement.
literally the majority party, but actually a minority group; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by Lenin.
Russian national assembly created as one of the reforms following the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Nicholas II.
Russian minister who introduced reforms intended to placate the peasantry after the Revolution of 1905; included reduction of land redemption payments and an attempt to create a marketoriented peasantry.
agricultural entrepreneurs who utilized the Stolypin reforms to buy more land and increase production.
commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by mid-19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West.
studies of Western science and technology beginning during the 18h century; based on texts available at the Dutch Nagasaki trading center.
American naval officer; in 1853 insisted under threat of bombardment on the opening of ports to American trade.
huge industrial combines created in Japan during the 1890s.
Western term for perceived threat from Japanese imperialism.
local political councils created as part of Alexander II's reforms; gave middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy.