Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; desired radical change in the Russian political and economic system; wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from the West.
political groups that thought the abolition of formal government as a first step to creating a better society; became important in Russia and was the modern world's first large terrorist movement.
literally the majority party, but actually a minority group; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by Lenin.
Russian national assembly created as one of the reforms following the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Nicholas II.
Russian minister who introduced reforms intended to placate the peasantry after the Revolution of 1905; included reduction of land redemption payments and an attempt to create a marketoriented peasantry.
agricultural entrepreneurs who utilized the Stolypin reforms to buy more land and increase production.
commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by mid-19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West.
studies of Western science and technology beginning during the 18h century; based on texts available at the Dutch Nagasaki trading center.
American naval officer; in 1853 insisted under threat of bombardment on the opening of ports to American trade.