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Western Civilization 2

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social, political, economical, religion, military
Western Civilization
Russia, Europe, The Americas
The Renaissance
1300-1400 AD: Humanism
Humanism
What people do or think, behavior or change
The reformation
challenging the church, the split of christianity, protestant reformation, counter reformation. Example: If a person can challenge and win. that was a great conquest.
Expansion
1500 AD-Europe and New World - A new Economy, Gold and Silver - Mercantilism
Paths to enlightenment
Although the intellectuals of the eighteenth century were much influenced by the scientific ideas of the seventeenth century, they did not always acquire this knowledge directly from the original source.
Absolution
Growing power of the state. Church vs State, More wealth more power
Scientific Revolution
This revolution ultimately questioned and challenged the conception and beliefs about the nature of the world and mans place in it. It was challenged to both Christianity and politics, The shift was from and earth centered geocentric to heliocentric: the sun centered the universe not earth.
Sceintists and astronomers
faced strong opposition form the church, it was and explosive change.
Galileo's
his ideas and experiments changed scientific development, he used the telescope to observer the heavens, he argued with scriptures regarding the universe. In 1633 he is called before the inquisitions in rome, found guilty of heresy
other scientist
Copernus, Brache, Kepler, and newton all agreed with Galileos theories and
all believed that the secrets of nature were written in the language of mathematics
Ptolemy
the earth was the center of the universe
Isaac Newton
Invented Calculus, rates of change, studied the compisition of light, law of universal gravitation, Wrote Principia: The 3 laws of motion, and astronomy
Francis Bacon
Inductive principals, experiments observation solution
conclusions: Scientific revolution
was a major turning point in modern western civilization, the western world arrived at a new concept of the universe.
The Scientific method
Scientist kicked off new ways of thinking, intellectuals followed their leads, women stepped "into the light", Paris: they brought together both men and women to discuss new ideas,
Enlightenment
it included the rejections of traditional Christianity, this period followed the religious wars of the 16th and 17th centuries, it would threatened the church, this movement led many to believe that they can make social changes, stressed the application of reason and the scientific method of all aspects of life.
Emanuel Kant
1784 German Philosopher "mans leaving his self cause immanturity", dare to know, use your own intelligence, free yourself from old traditions
the impact of travel
traders, missionaries and explorers began to publish and increasing amount of travel literature, it gave different accounts of many many different cultures, this shook "European Superiority", and some intellectuals began to evaluate their own civilization in regards to others
Cultural Relativism
no culture is supeior to another, due to the fact that culture is a matter of custom no vision, the christian perception of God was merely of many.
Hobbes
the Leviathan (1651) Originally people were unruly, led by animalistic tendencies,
John Locke
1690 He argued that every person was born with a blank mind, knowledge comes from experience or enviorment, it is not hereditary, it comes from reason not from faith,
By changing a persons enviroment and subjecting them to proper influences they could then be changed and create a new society
Montesquieu
He attacked traditional religion and stressed the use of reason, he wrote "Spirit of the Laws" 1748, he ascertained "Natural Laws" that govern the social relationship of humans
3 basic types of goverment,
Montesquieu theory: Republic: suitable for small states based on citizen involvement, -
Monarchy: for medium size states, grounded in the ruling of class's and adherence to the law
Despotism: Apt for large empires, dependents upon fear and obedience
Check and Balances
seperation of power, executive, legislative judicial Branch, each limited the power of the other, provide the greatest freedom and control of the state.
Voltaire
exiled from France to England, he wrote about the English life, its freedom of the press, political freedom and religions toleration, he also criticized the French Absolute, the lack of both religions toleration and freedom thoughout
Diderot
He published a 28 volume Encyclopedia or classified Dictionary of the Arts, Sciences and trade, The ideas fo the elightenment were spread greatly due to this publication,
Deism
Diderot stated, a mechanical "God" that created other universes, God created, then stepped away and let things be, no magical miracles
Margaret Cavendish
one of the most prominent female scientist of the 17th century
Maria Winkelmann
most famous of the female astronomers in Germany
Nature of Women
in the 17th century, women joined this debate by arguing against the distored images of women held by men.
Physiocrats
founders of Economics, claimed they would discover the Natual economic laws that governed human society.
Economics
Studies the production, distributions and consumption of goods and services
Frances Quesnay
Leader of the Physiocrats and his 2 laws: 1st Law, Land constituted the source of wealth, wealth increase agriculture, even the state revenue raise taxes for land, gold and silver should not be the primary determinates of wealth,
2nd Law: Supply and demand should govern the marketplace...this would give people freedom to pursue their own economic interest, no state involvement, no government regulation "laissez-faire"
Adam Smith
Father of Modern Economics, and his 3 Laws
1st Law: Anti Mercantilism, ban tariff that protect home industries, if one country can supply another with a cheaper product, it is better to purchase it than produce at a higher cost, free trade was a fundamental of economic principal, 2nd Law: labor theory of value, neither land nor gold/silver indicated a nations true value. the labor of individuals farmer artisans and merchants constitute the true wealth of a nations
3rd law: The state should not interfere in economic matters the government should only protect society from invasion, defend from injustices and oppression and keep the public infrastructure up.
Later Enlightenment
A new generation of philosophies emerged
Jean Jacques Rousseu 1712-78
believed that humand in their primitive conditions were happy, no laws no judges, all were equal, to preserve private property people adopted laws and as a result they rushed into chains not freedom,
Social Contract 1762
An agreement on a part of society to be governed by its general will, It was all about community and what was best for it as opposed to the individual.
Mary Astell 1666- 1731
She felt that women needed to become more educated, women are as capable of learning as men are, In marriage both are equal,
Mary Wollstonecraft
viewed by many as the founder of feminism
Vindication of the rights of Women 1792
argued that women must obey men that is was a direct contridiction to the beliefs of the same individual in that no ruler had the rights over their subjects, the ideal of the enlightment was based on inate reason in all human beings not just men
culture and society
Boroque and Neo classical dominated the 17th century by 1730s rocco began to take over, MUSIC bach, handel, hayden, Mozart
Boom of Publishing
,1750s 300 titles available, 1760s 1600 titles available, aimed at no only the upper classes but the middle class as well... including women.
Protestent
Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Hapsburg Empire, Poland, Southern Germany
Luthernism
Scandanavian North Germany states
Anglicanism
England
Calvinism
Scotland, parts of Switzerland, and parts of Germany
Problems with the Church
the Jesuit had become quite successful, and carried with that great influence and power within the church, which made enemies
Jesuits
goverments of the states began to gain control over their churches , 1759-67 Jesuits are expelled from Portugal, France, and Spain, by 1773 Spain and France call for complete dissolution.
Joseph the II of Austria
answered a call for religious toleration while recognizing Cathlolicsism, he also granted Lutheran, Calvinist and Greek Orthodox the right to worship privately
Jews
They were still widely dispised in Europe with the exc cption to poland, the larges number lived in Eastern Europe, Introduce-Monodeism forbidden from owning land, forced higher taxes, and subject to public humiliation
Pogroms
Massacre organized of the Jews
Popular Religion
Catholic still remain an emportan element, 90-95% attended easter sunday mass
The Old Order
an agrarian society, dominated by Kings and Land owning aristograts, Noble and Clergy had privleges,
18th Century
Most European states were ruled by monarchs, Europe becomes increasing secularized
Secular
to indicate movement away from religious affairs and toward worldly order, larger government and more military
The big Five
Britain, France, Prussia, Austria, Russia
Natural Laws or Enlightened Absolutism
natural rights, undeniable privilages that no person should be with out, freedom of religion, speech and press, the right to assemble, hold property and seek happiness, all men created equal,
Enlightened Rulers
Frederick II Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, Joseph II of Austria
Louis XIV
left France with an enormous debt, unhappy populatin and a 5 yr old successor
Louis XV
5 yrs old he did not begin to rule until 1743, the governing was left to the Duke of Orleans, but he was a poor leader, France pulled back from foreign endeovors, they expanded their commercial empire, he then takes control and is ineffective and his grandson takes over
Louis XVI
20yrs old proves to be no better, He and Marie Antoinette could not foresee the effects of their poor leadership, knew little about the operations of the government and lacked the energy to deal decisively with state affairs
Great Britain
Both king and parliament shared power, Parliament would gradually gain the upper hand,
Queen Ann
died with out a male heir, the crown was then offered to another member of the family the ruler of Germany, a prtestant, 1714-27 George I, 1727-60 George II, Since George I did not speak English, the chief minister rant he country
Robert Walpole
Ran the country during George I reign because the king did not speak English, he was a moderate ruler, British want a more aggressive stance.
Vesalius, Andreas
The new anatomy of the 16th century, wrote Fabric of the Human Body, this book was based on his Paduan lectures, in which he deviated from traditional practice by dissecting a body to illustrate what he was talking about, he overthrew some of Galens biggest error
Galen
his influence on the medieval medical world ws pervasive in anatomy, physioogy and disease. He had relied on animal rather than human dissection ot arrive at the picture of the human anatomy that was inaccurate in many instances
William Harvey 1578/1657
Wrote a book On the Motion of hte Heart and Blood published in 1628, his observations and experiments led him to reject the ancient greeks contentions, he demonstrated that the heart was the beginning point of the circulation of blood in the bodyand that the same blood flows in both veins and arteries, his theory of circulation laid the foundation of moder physiology.
Social Darwinism
argued that societies were organisms that evolved through time from a struggle with their environment, progress came from the struggle for srvival as the "fit" the strong survive and the weak decline.
John Wesley
founder of methodist church, Methodism
Enlightened Absolutism
a new type of monarchy in the late 18th century, the extent to which rulers followed the advice of the philosophes and reled by enlightened principles
French Monarchy
in the 18th century, France experienced an economic revival as the enlightenment gained strength the french were not overly influenced by the philosophes and resisted reforms even as the french aristocracy grew stronger
William Pit " the elder"
1757 replaces Robert Walpole , he advances the Britain imperial ambitions, during his tenure Britain acquired Canada and India, he was replaced when George III reigned
George III
King of the revolutionary war, he replaced PIT the elder with Lord Bute, he intended to strengthen his monarch and wielded his patronage power gladly, he was met with opposition, 1780 the house of commons claimed the influence of the king is increasing , the Colonist in America were fighting with the monarchy.
Fredrick and Fredrick the II
both developed a strong military, government, General Directory, Chief administrator agent and central government, They also Supervised the military The police, economic and financials
Fredrick I
develops and efficient civil service, it had its own code of obedience and honor, he also kept a very close eye on his officials, his admistration also had a ridged class structure, his military officials were Nobility, Aristocrats and land owner of huge estates.
Prussia Army
by the end of Fredrick I reign the army grew from 45,000 to 85,000 Prussia was now the 4th largest European County behind Russia, France and Austria, Prussian Militarism became synonymous with military virtures, peasants had two option be a farmer or join the military.
Fredrick II the great
he believed that he king was the first servant of the states, he often followed the recommended philosophes regarding reform, however, he restricted the rights of the middle class and upper class, he relied heavily on the nobility, he didnt want to challenge them, re reserved higher position to the nobility only, her enlarged the army to 200,000, He was involved in two wars , the war for Austrian succession and the Seven Year War after these two wars he also gained Polish territories
The Hapsburg Family
Austria was very diverse, contained many languages, religions and cultures, providing common laws and centralized gov't would became a difficult taks
Empress Maria Theresa 1740-80
she lost land to Prussia under Frederick the Great, she resolved to reform Austria before the next attack, in order to unite her empire she reorganized her govt and territories were then divided into 10 provinces. she subdivided into districts in order to make a more centralized govt, she also grew her military
Joseph II
he succeeded maria Theresa his mother, he made various changes, while also strengthing the monarchy, he abolished Serfdom and gave hereditary rights to their holding, He tried to help his people but does it to a fall good intentions bad results, he granted equality, relious toleration and puts restiction on the catholic church, in total he granted 6000 decree and pssaed 11,00 new laws to much system failed
Catherin the Great from Russia
Peter III is murded by faction of nobles his German wife Catherine takes the crown, inttelligent and enlightened ruler, she wanted russia to reform, but was aware that she couldnt alienate russian nobility, divided russia into 50 provinces which were then subdivided into districts with ruling officials that were chosen by the nobels, they rant the day to day governing,
Russian Peasants
revolt errupted, cossacks (tribal warriors supported results
1772
Poland lost 30% of its land and 50% of its population by Austria, Russia, and Prussia
1793
Russia and Prussia take more Polish territories,
1795
Russia, prussia and Austria take the remaining polish lands, poland is gone for the time being.